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      Management of glucocorticoids-induced osteoporosis: role of teriparatide

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          Abstract

          Glucocorticoids (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis, which leads to an increased fracture risk in patients. The normal bone turnover depends on a balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts activity and GC can cause a rapid bone loss, decreasing bone formation and increasing bone resorption. The decreased bone formation is mainly due to the GC-induced apoptosis of both osteoblasts and osteocytes, while the increased bone resorption is due to the increased life-span of pre-existing osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are clearly effective in preventing and treating GIOP but anabolic therapeutic strategies are the new promising therapeutic alternative. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that teriparatide, the active (1–34) parathyroid hormone (PTH) molecule, is efficacious for the treatment of GIOP, being able to induce an increase in bone mass in these patients. Intermittent administration of human PTH (1–34) stimulates bone formation by increasing osteoblast number. Additionally, human PTH (1–34) modulates the level and/or activity of locally produced growth factors and cytokines. Teriparatide has been demonstrated in several clinical studies to significantly decrease the incidence of fractures in patients affected by GIOP. It has recently received an indication for GIOP and its label indication has also been expanded.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

            (2001)
          To clarify the factors associated with prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis, and to present the most recent information available in these areas. From March 27-29, 2000, a nonfederal, nonadvocate, 13-member panel was convened, representing the fields of internal medicine, family and community medicine, endocrinology, epidemiology, orthopedic surgery, gerontology, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynecology, preventive medicine, and cell biology. Thirty-two experts from these fields presented data to the panel and an audience of 699. Primary sponsors were the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and the National Institutes of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research. MEDLINE was searched for January 1995 through December 1999, and a bibliography of 2449 references provided to the panel. Experts prepared abstracts for presentations with relevant literature citations. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed conclusions based on evidence presented in open forum and the literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read and circulated to the experts and the audience for public discussion. The panel resolved conflicts and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The draft statement was posted on the Web on March 30, 2000, and updated with the panel's final revisions within a few weeks. Though prevalent in white postmenopausal women, osteoporosis occurs in all populations and at all ages and has significant physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences. Risks for osteoporosis (reflected by low bone mineral density [BMD]) and for fracture overlap but are not identical. More attention should be paid to skeletal health in persons with conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis. Clinical risk factors have an important but poorly validated role in determining who should have BMD measurement, in assessing fracture risk, and in determining who should be treated. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is crucial to develop optimal peak bone mass and to preserve bone mass throughout life. Supplementation with these 2 nutrients may be necessary in persons not achieving recommended dietary intake. Gonadal steroids are important determinants of peak and lifetime bone mass in men, women, and children. Regular exercise, especially resistance and high-impact activities, contributes to development of high peak bone mass and may reduce risk of falls in older persons. Assessment of bone mass, identification of fracture risk, and determination of who should be treated are the optimal goals when evaluating patients for osteoporosis. Fracture prevention is the primary treatment goal for patients with osteoporosis. Several treatments have been shown to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures, including those that enhance bone mass and reduce the risk or consequences of falls. Adults with vertebral, rib, hip, or distal forearm fractures should be evaluated for osteoporosis and given appropriate therapy.
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            Teriparatide or alendronate in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

            Bisphosphonate therapy is the current standard of care for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Studies of anabolic therapy in patients who are receiving long-term glucocorticoids and are at high risk for fracture are lacking. In an 18-month randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, we compared teriparatide with alendronate in 428 women and men with osteoporosis (ages, 22 to 89 years) who had received glucocorticoids for at least 3 months (prednisone equivalent, 5 mg daily or more). A total of 214 patients received 20 microg of teriparatide once daily, and 214 received 10 mg of alendronate once daily. The primary outcome was the change in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine. Secondary outcomes included changes in bone mineral density at the total hip and in markers of bone turnover, the time to changes in bone mineral density, the incidence of fractures, and safety. At the last measurement, the mean (+/-SE) bone mineral density at the lumbar spine had increased more in the teriparatide group than in the alendronate group (7.2+/-0.7% vs. 3.4+/-0.7%, P<0.001). A significant difference between the groups was reached by 6 months (P<0.001). At 12 months, bone mineral density at the total hip had increased more in the teriparatide group. Fewer new vertebral fractures occurred in the teriparatide group than in the alendronate group (0.6% vs. 6.1%, P=0.004); the incidence of nonvertebral fractures was similar in the two groups (5.6% vs. 3.7%, P=0.36). Significantly more patients in the teriparatide group had at least one elevated measure of serum calcium. Among patients with osteoporosis who were at high risk for fracture, bone mineral density increased more in patients receiving teriparatide than in those receiving alendronate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00051558 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the anabolic effect of intermittent PTH.

              Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone formation by increasing osteoblast number, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this effect are not completely understood. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that PTH directly activates survival signaling in osteoblasts; and that delay of osteoblast apoptosis is a major contributor to the increased osteoblast number, at least in mice. This effect requires Runx2-dependent expression of anti-apoptotic genes like Bcl-2. PTH also causes exit of replicating progenitors from the cell cycle by decreasing expression of cyclin D and increasing expression of several cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Exit from the cell cycle may set the stage for pro-differentiating and pro-survival effects of locally produced growth factors and cytokines, the level and/or activity of which are known to be influenced by PTH. Observations from genetically modified mice suggest that the anabolic effect of intermittent PTH requires insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and perhaps Wnts. Attenuation of the negative effects of PPAR gamma may also lead to increased osteoblast number. Daily injections of PTH may add to the pro-differentiating and pro-survival effects of locally produced PTH related protein (PTHrP). As a result, osteoblast number increases beyond that needed to replace the bone removed by osteoclasts during bone remodeling. The pleiotropic effects of intermittent PTH, each of which alone may increase osteoblast number, may explain why this therapy reverses bone loss in most osteoporotic individuals regardless of the underlying pathophysiology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2009
                2009
                4 May 2009
                : 5
                : 305-310
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medica, Policlinico Umberto I, Università degli Studi Sapienza di Roma, Italy;
                [2 ]Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Silvia Migliaccio, Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medica, Università Sapienza di Roma, Italy, Tel +39 06 4997 0721, Fax + 39 06 446 1450, Email silvia.migliaccio@ 123456uniroma1.it
                Article
                tcrm-5-305
                2697534
                19536312
                © 2009 Migliaccio et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                glucocorticoids, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteoporosis, teriparatide

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