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      Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

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          Abstract

          The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

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          Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnostic method for infectious diseases

          Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an established nucleic acid amplification method offering rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnosis of infectious diseases. This technology has been developed into commercially available detection kits for a variety of pathogens including bacteria and viruses. The current focus on LAMP methodology is as a diagnostic system to be employed in resource-limited laboratories in developing countries, where many fatal tropical diseases are endemic. The combination of LAMP and novel microfluidic technologies such as Lab-on-a-chip may facilitate the realization of genetic point-of-care testing systems to be used by both developed and developing countries in the near future. This review will describe the historical, current, and future developments of such technologies.
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            Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

            J. Compton (1991)
            Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) is a primer-dependent technology that can be used for the continuous amplification of nucleic acids in a single mixture at one temperature.
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              An overview of foodborne pathogen detection: in the perspective of biosensors.

              Food safety is a global health goal and the foodborne diseases take a major crisis on health. Therefore, detection of microbial pathogens in food is the solution to the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety. For this reason, a comprehensive literature survey has been carried out aiming to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. Conventional and standard bacterial detection methods such as culture and colony counting methods, immunology-based methods and polymerase chain reaction based methods, may take up to several hours or even a few days to yield an answer. Obviously this is inadequate, and recently many researchers are focusing towards the progress of rapid methods. Although new technologies like biosensors show potential approaches, further research and development is essential before biosensors become a real and reliable choice. New bio-molecular techniques for food pathogen detection are being developed to improve the biosensor characteristics such as sensitivity and selectivity, also which is rapid, reliable, effective and suitable for in situ analysis. This paper not only offers an overview in the area of microbial pathogen detection but it also describes the conventional methods, analytical techniques and recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification and quantification, with an emphasis on biosensors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                12 January 2015
                2014
                : 5
                : 770
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
                [2] 2School of Science, Monash University Malaysia Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
                [3] 3UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute (UMBI), UKM Medical Centre, Bandar Tun Razak Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [4] 4Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Dongsheng Zhou, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, China

                Reviewed by: Kiiyukia Matthews Ciira, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya; Sheng Chen, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China; Weili Liang, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China

                *Correspondence: Learn-Han Lee, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia e-mail: lee.learn.han@ 123456monash.edu

                This article was submitted to Food Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2014.00770
                4290631
                25628612
                1318e519-5494-4068-8bb8-e11b8f70f667
                Copyright © 2015 Law, Ab Mutalib, Chan and Lee.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 21 October 2014
                : 17 December 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 163, Pages: 19, Words: 14525
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Review Article

                Microbiology & Virology
                foodborne,pathogens,rapid,detection,pcr,nasba,lamp
                Microbiology & Virology
                foodborne, pathogens, rapid, detection, pcr, nasba, lamp

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