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      Oil-soluble ionic liquids as antiwear and extreme pressure additives in poly-α-olefin for steel/steel contacts

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          Abstract

          To enhance the lubricating and extreme pressure (EP) performance of base oils, two types of oil-soluble ionic liquids (ILs) with similar anion albeit dissimilar cations were synthesized. The physical properties of the prepared ILs were measured. The anticorrosion properties of ILs were assessed by conducting corrosion tests on steel discs and copper strips, which revealed the remarkable anticorrosion properties of the ILs in comparison with those of the commercial additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). The tribological properties of the two ILs as additives for poly-α-olefin-10 (PAO10) with various mass concentrations were investigated. The tribological test results indicate that these ILs as additives are capable of reducing friction and wear of sliding contacts remarkably as well as enhance the EP performance of blank PAO10. Under similar test conditions, these IL additives exhibit higher lubricating and anti-wear (AW) performances than those of ZDDP based additive package in PAO10. Subsequently, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were conducted to study the lubricating mechanism of the two ILs. The results indicate that the formation of tribochemical film plays the most crucial role in enhancing the lubricating and AW behavior of the mixture lubricants.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Hydrophobic, Highly Conductive Ambient-Temperature Molten Salts.

          New, hydrophobic ionic liquids with low melting points (<-30 degrees C to ambient temperature) have been synthesized and investigated, based on 1,3-dialkyl imidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions. Other imidazolium molten salts with hydrophilic anions and thus water-soluble are also described. The molten salts were characterized by NMR and elemental analysis. Their density, melting point, viscosity, conductivity, refractive index, electrochemical window, thermal stability, and miscibility with water and organic solvents were determined. The influence of the alkyl substituents in 1, 2, 3, and 4(5)-positions on these properties was scrutinized. Viscosities as low as 35 cP (for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide (bis(triflyl)amide) and trifluoroacetate) and conductivities as high as 9.6 mS/cm were obtained. Photophysical probe studies were carried out to establish more precisely the solvent properties of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide). The hydrophobic molten salts are promising solvents for electrochemical, photovoltaic, and synthetic applications.
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            Ionic liquid lubricants: designed chemistry for engineering applications.

            This tutorial review outlines current state of the art research on ionic liquid lubricants. Ionic liquids (ILs) were first reported as very promising high-performance lubricants in 2001 and have attracted considerable attention in the field of tribology since then because of their remarkable lubrication and anti-wear capabilities as compared with lubrication oils in general use; in recent times we have seen dramatically increased interest in the topic. The review starts with a brief introduction to ILs and fluid lubrication, and then discusses in more detail the tribological properties of IL lubricants, either as lubrication oils, additives or thin films. As well as lubrication mechanisms, some current problems and potential solutions are tentatively discussed.
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              Global energy consumption due to friction in passenger cars

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Tsinghua Science and Technology
                Friction
                Tsinghua University Press (Xueyuan Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China )
                2223-7690
                05 February 2019
                : 07
                : 01
                : 18-31 (pp. )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
                [ 2 ] University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
                Author notes
                * Corresponding authors: Meirong CAI, E-mail: caimr@ 123456licp.cas.cn
                Feng ZHOU, E-mail: zhouf@ 123456licp.cas.cn

                Guowei HUANG. He received his master degree in material science and engineering in 2013 from Shandong Jianzhu University. After then, he was a PhD student in the State Key Laboratory of solid lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interests include the design and preparation of novel ionic liquids as lubricant and lubricating additives.

                Qiangliang YU. He got his PhD degree in 2016 at the Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics. He is an assistant at the State Key Lab of Solid Lubrication in Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS. His research interests are ionic liquids lubricants and anticorrosive additives.

                Zhengfeng MA. He received his B.S. degree in chemistry and M.S. degree in polymer chemistry and physics from Lanzhou University in 2011 and 2014 respectively. He joined the State Key Lab of Solid Lubrication in Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, from 2014. His research areas is polymer lubrication materials.

                Meirong CAI. She got her PhD degree in 2012 at the Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics. She is an associate professor at the State Key Lab of Solid Lubrication in Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS. She has authored or co-authored more than 30 journal papers. Her research interests are ionic liquids lubricants and supramolecular gel lubricants.

                Feng ZHOU. He is a full professor in Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS and Deputy director of State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication. He gained PhD in 2004 and spent three years (2005—2008) in the Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge as a research associate. He has published more than 260 journal papers that received more than 10000 citations and has the H-index 56. His research interests include the bioninspired tribology, biomimic surfaces/interfaces of soft matters, drag-reduction and antibiofouling, functional coatings. He has gained a number of awards including “Outstanding Youth Award” of International Society of Bionic Engineering, 2013. He serves as editorial board member of Tribology International, Journal Fiber Bioengineering and Informatics etc.

                Weimin LIU. He received his Ph.D. degree in lubricating materials and tribology from Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (LICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1990. After that, he joined the State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication (LSL) of the LICP. From June 1993 to June 1994, he worked as a Visiting Scholar at Pennsylvania State University, USA. In 2013, he was elected the Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Currently, he is a professor of LICP and head of the State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication. Up to now, he has published more than 500 papers with citation over 20000. He holds 80 Chinese patents and 1 US patent; won 2 National Awards for Technological Invention (second class) and 1 National Award for Natural Sciences (second class). Currently, his research interests mainly focus on space and aviation lubrication, high performance lubricating materials and Tribochemistry.

                Article
                2223-7690-07-01-18
                10.1007/s40544-017-0180-8

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 12, Tables: 3, References: 42, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Article

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