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      Perfil lipídico de 25 pescados marinos mexicanos con especial énfasis en sus ácidos grasos n-3 como componentes nutracéuticos

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          Abstract

          El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar y evaluar la composición lipídica de pescados marinos mexicanos con especial énfasis en sus ácidos grasos n-3 como componentes nutracéuticos. Se analizó la porción comestible de 25 especies: humedad, proteína cruda (PC), lípidos totales (LT) y ácidos grasos (AG). En promedio, la PC fue de 18.40, la humedad 75.20 y los LT 3.60 g/100g parte comestible, respectivamente. En todas las muestras se identificaron los siguientes ácidos grasos n-3 por orden de abundancia (mg/100g parte comestible): C22:6n-3 (DHA) (229.60), C20:5 n-3 (EPA)(52.10), C18:3 n-3 (ALA)(11.80) y C20:3 n-3 (2.25). Por su distribución geográfica y distribución general no presentaron una diferencia relevante en sus distintas categorías. Por su clasificación biológica, los pescados óseos presentaron mayor contenido de n-3 que los cartilaginosos, 307.82 y 74.8 mg/100g parte comestible, respectivamente. Se detectó una relación proporcional entre el contenido de lípidos totales y la concentración de AG de n-3. De acuerdo a la ubicación ecótica se observó una mayor presencia de EPA y DHA (mg/100g parte comestible) en las especies pelágicas (114.40, 420.70, respectivamente), que en las bentopelágicas (31.2, 125.3) y demersales (40.30, 225.40, respectivamente). Las especies grasas presentaron mayor contenido de EPA y DHA (mg/100g parte comestible) (109.27 y 552.70) que las semigrasas (56.12 y 226.29) y las magras (15.95 y 96.52). Los pescados óseos, grasos y pelágicos presentaron un contenido mayor de EPA+DHA. De acuerdo a los valores recomendados internacionalmente (200 a 650 mg de EPA + DHA / día), el 44% de las especies analizadas se pueden considerar como alimentos funcionales, ya que las concentraciones de EPA + DHA se encontraron en un intervalo de 220 - 1300 mg/100g.

          Translated abstract

          Lipidic pattern of 25 mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in their n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals components. The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the lipidic composition of mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals. The edible portion of 25 species: humidity (H), crude protein (CP), total lipids (TL) and fatty acids (FA). The average content (g/100g edible portion) of H was 75.20, PC was 18.40, TL was 3.60. Four n-3 FA were identified in all the samples and they were found in the next abundance order (mg/100g edible portion): C22:6n-3 (DHA)(229.60), C20:5 n-3 (EPA)(52.10), C18:3 n-3 (ALA)(11.80) and C20:3 n-3 (2.25). By their origin and climate there were no difference. By their biologycal classification, n-3 FA content was higher in bony fishes than cartilaginous fishes. It was detected a proportional relation with the n-3 FA concentration and total lipid content. According to their ecotic distribution there were numerical differences in DHA content (mg/100g edible portion) between pelagics (420.70), benthopelagics (125.30) and demersals fishes (225.40). Fatty fishes had higher content of EPA and DHA (mg/100g edible portion) (109.27 and 552.72) than semifatty fishes (56.12 and 226.29) and leanness (15.95 and 96.52), respectively. Bony, fatty and pelagic fishes had a higher content of EPA+DHA. According with the international recommendation values (200 to 600 mg EPA+DHA/day) the 44% of the analyzed species could be considered as functional foods due to their high content of EPA + DHA in a range of 220 to 1300 mg/100g.

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          Most cited references38

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          Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease.

          Human beings evolved consuming a diet that contained about equal amounts of n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids. Over the past 100-150 y there has been an enormous increase in the consumption of n-6 fatty acids due to the increased intake of vegetable oils from corn, sunflower seeds, safflower seeds, cottonseed, and soybeans. Today, in Western diets, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids ranges from approximately 20-30:1 instead of the traditional range of 1-2:1. Studies indicate that a high intake of n-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to one that is prothrombotic and proaggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction and decreases in bleeding time. n-3 Fatty acids, however, have antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and vasodilatory properties. These beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids have been shown in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and, in some patients with renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of the studies were carried out with fish oils [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. However, alpha-linolenic acid, found in green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, rapeseed, and walnuts, desaturates and elongates in the human body to EPA and DHA and by itself may have beneficial effects in health and in the control of chronic diseases.
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              n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

              Little is known about the relation of the dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ie, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from fatty fish and alpha-linolenic acid from vegetable oils, with ischemic heart disease among older adults. We investigated the associations of plasma phospholipid concentrations of DHA, EPA, and alpha-linolenic acid as biomarkers of intake with the risk of incident fatal ischemic heart disease and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults. We conducted a case-control study nested in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort study of adults aged > or = 65 y. Cases experienced incident fatal myocardial infarction and other ischemic heart disease death (n = 54) and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 125). Matched controls were randomly selected (n = 179). We measured plasma phospholipid concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in blood samples drawn approximately 2 y before the event. A higher concentration of combined DHA and EPA was associated with a lower risk of fatal ischemic heart disease, and a higher concentration of alpha-linolenic acid with a tendency to lower risk, after adjustment for risk factors [odds ratio: 0.32 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.78; P = 0.01) and 0.52 (0.24, 1.15; P = 0.1), respectively]. In contrast, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were not associated with nonfatal myocardial infarction. Higher combined dietary intake of DHA and EPA, and possibly alpha-linolenic acid, may lower the risk of fatal ischemic heart disease in older adults. The association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with fatal ischemic heart disease, but not with nonfatal myocardial infarction, is consistent with possible antiarrhythmic effects of these fatty acids.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2004
                : 54
                : 3
                : 328-336
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad La Salle México
                Article
                S0004-06222004000300012
                131b9eff-e7fc-44c6-8e91-5ea58dacb197

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Marine fishes,n-3 fatty acids,nutraceuticals,Mexico,Pescados marinos,ácidos grasos,omega 3,nutracéuticos,México

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