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      Interactions of Nanoparticles with Macrophages and Feasibility of Drug Delivery for Asthma

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          Understanding the interaction between nanoparticles and immune cells is essential for the evaluation of nanotoxicity and development of nanomedicines. However, to date, there is little data on the membrane microstructure and biochemical changes in nanoparticle-loaded immune cells. In this study, we observed the microstructure of nanoparticle-loaded macrophages and changes in lipid droplets using holotomography analysis. Quantitatively analyzing the refractive index distribution of nanoparticle-loaded macrophages, we identified the interactions between nanoparticles and macrophages. The results showed that, when nanoparticles were phagocytized by macrophages, the number of lipid droplets and cell volume increased. The volume and mass of the lipid droplets slightly increased, owing to the absorption of nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the number of lipid droplets increased more conspicuously than the other factors. Furthermore, alveolar macrophages are involved in the development and progression of asthma. Studies have shown that macrophages play an essential role in the maintenance of asthma-related inflammation and tissue damage, suggesting that macrophage cells may be applied to asthma target delivery strategies. Therefore, we investigated the target delivery efficiency of gold nanoparticle-loaded macrophages at the biodistribution level, using an ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse model. Normal and severe asthma models were selected to determine the difference in the level of inflammation in the lung. Consequently, macrophages had increased mobility in models of severe asthma, compared to those of normal asthma disease. In this regard, the detection of observable differences in nanoparticle-loaded macrophages may be of primary interest, as an essential endpoint analysis for investigating nanomedical applications and immunotheragnostic strategies.

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          The formulation and delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins, poses substantial challenges owing to their large size and susceptibility to degradation. In this Review we highlight recent advances in formulation and delivery strategies--such as the use of microsphere-based controlled-release technologies, protein modification methods that make use of polyethylene glycol and other polymers, and genetic manipulation of biopharmaceutical drugs--and discuss their advantages and limitations. We also highlight current and emerging delivery routes that provide an alternative to injection, including transdermal, oral and pulmonary delivery routes. In addition, the potential of targeted and intracellular protein delivery is discussed.
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            Active resolution of acute inflammation is a previously unrecognized interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programmes that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. This Review presents new cellular and molecular mechanisms for the resolution of inflammation, revealing key roles for eicosanoids, such as lipoxins, and recently discovered families of endogenous chemical mediators, termed resolvins and protectins. These mediators have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties, thereby protecting organs from collateral damage, stimulating the clearance of inflammatory debris and promoting mucosal antimicrobial defence.
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              Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data

              Emil Wolf (1969)

                Author and article information

                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI AG
                February 2022
                January 30 2022
                : 23
                : 3
                : 1622
                © 2022


                Self URI (article page): https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/3/1622


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