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      The Role of Phytochemicals in the Inflammatory Phase of Wound Healing

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          Abstract

          Historically, plant-based products have been the basis of medicine since before the advent of modern Western medicine. Wound dressings made of honey, curcumin and other phytochemical-rich compounds have been traditionally used. Recently, the mechanisms behind many of these traditional therapies have come to light. In this review, we show that in the context of wound healing, there is a global theme of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals in traditional medicine. Although promising, we discuss the limitations of using some of these phytochemicals in order to warrant more research, ideally in randomized clinical trial settings.

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          Most cited references 105

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          Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources.

          Little is known about the individual components of honey that are responsible for its antioxidant activity. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolics and other antioxidants present in honeys from seven floral sources. Chromatograms of the phenolic nonpolar fraction of the honeys indicated that most honeys have similar but quantitatively different phenolic profiles. Many of the flavonoids and phenolic acids identified have been previously described as potent antioxidants. A linear correlation between phenolic content and ORAC activity was demonstrated (R(2) = 0.963, p < 0.0001). Honeys were separated by solid-phase extraction into four fractions for sugar removal and separation based on solubility to identify the relative contribution of each fraction to the antioxidant activity of honey. Antioxidant analysis of the different honey fractions suggested that the water-soluble fraction contained most of the antioxidant components. Specific water-soluble antioxidant components were quantified, including protein; gluconic acid; ascorbic acid; hydroxymethylfuraldehyde; and the combined activities of the enzymes glucose oxidase, catalase and peroxidase. Of these components, a significant correlation could be established only between protein content and ORAC activity (R(2) = 0.674, p = 0.024). In general, the antioxidant capacity of honey appeared to be a result of the combined activity of a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, Maillard reaction products, and possibly other minor components. The phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant capacity of honey but were not solely responsible for it.
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            Activation of transcription factor NF-kappa B is suppressed by curcumin (diferuloylmethane) [corrected].

            When activated, NF-kappa B, a ubiquitous transcription factor, binds DNA as a heterodimeric complex composed of members of the Rel/NF-kappa B family of polypeptides. Because of its intimate involvement in host defense against disease, this transcription factor is an important target for therapeutic intervention. In the present report we demonstrate that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a known anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic agent, is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation. Treatment of human myeloid ML-1a cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) rapidly activated NF-kappa B, which consists of p50 and p65 subunits, and this activation was inhibited by curcumin. AP-1 binding factors were also found to be down-modulated by curcumin, whereas the Sp1 binding factor was unaffected. Besides TNF, curcumin also blocked phorbol ester- and hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of NF-kappa B. The TNF-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of I kappa B alpha was not observed in curcumin-treated cells; the translocation of p65 subunit to the nucleus was inhibited at the same time. The mechanism of action of curcumin was found to be different from that of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. Our results indicate that curcumin inhibits NF-kappa B activation pathway at a step before I kappa B alpha phosphorylation but after the convergence of various stimuli.
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              Impaired wound healing.

              Nonhealing wounds represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for a large portion of the population. One of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the failure of chronic wounds to heal is an out-of-control inflammatory response that is self-sustaining. Underappreciation of the inherent complexity of the healing wound has led to the failure of monotherapies, with no significant reduction in wound healing times. A model of the inflammatory profile of a nonhealing wound is one in which the equilibrium between synthesis and degradation has been shifted toward degradation. This review summarizes the current information regarding acute wound healing responses as contrasted to the delayed response characteristic of chronic wounds. In addition, some initial complexity theoretical models are proposed to define and explain the underlying pathophysiology.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                16 May 2017
                May 2017
                : 18
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada; ahm.shah@ 123456mail.utoronto.ca
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (LMP), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
                [4 ]Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: saeid.amininik@ 123456utoronto.ca ; Tel.: +1-416-480-6100 (ext. 85433)
                Article
                ijms-18-01068
                10.3390/ijms18051068
                5454978
                28509885
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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