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      Comparison of Visual Performance of Multifocal Intraocular Lenses with Same Material Monofocal Intraocular Lenses

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          To compare the visual performance of multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and monofocal IOLs made of the same material.


          The subjects included patients implanted with either Tecnis® monofocal IOLs (ZA9003 or ZCB00) or Tecnis® multifocal IOLs (ZMA00 or ZMB00) bilaterally. We conducted a retrospective study comparing the two types of IOLs. The multifocal group included 46 patients who were implanted with Tecnis® multifocal IOLs bilaterally. The monofocal group was an age- and sex-matched control group, and included 85 patients who were implanted with Tecnis® monofocal IOLs bilaterally. Lens opacity grading, the radius of corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, axial length and the refractive status were measured preoperatively. Pupil size, ocular aberrometry, distance, intermediate and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity with and without glare and the responses to a quality-of-vision questionnaire were evaluated pre- and postoperatively.


          The uncorrected near visual acuity was significantly better in the multifocal group, whereas both the corrected intermediate and near visual acuity were better in the monofocal group. Contrast sensitivity (with and without glare) was significantly better in the monofocal group. The rate of spectacle dependency was significantly lower in the multifocal group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding most items of the postoperative quality-of-vision questionnaire (VFQ-25), with the exception that the patients in the monofocal group reported fewer problems with nighttime driving.


          The multifocal IOLs used in this study reduced spectacle dependency more so than monofocal IOLs and did not compromise the subjective visual function, with the exception of nighttime driving.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Development of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire.

          To develop and test the psychometric properties of a 25-item version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Prospective observational cohort study of persons with 1 of 5 chronic eye diseases or low vision who were scheduled for nonurgent visits in ophthalmology practices and a reference sample of persons without eye disease. Eleven university-based ophthalmology practices and the NEI Clinical Center. Eligible participants had to have 1 of the following eye conditions: age-related cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, primary open-angle glaucoma, cytomegalovirus retinitis, or low vision from any cause. Seven of the 12 sites also enrolled persons in a reference sample. Reference sample participants had no evidence of underlying eye disease but were scheduled for either screening eye examinations or correction of refractive error. All eligible persons had to be 21 years or older, English speaking, and cognitively able to give informed consent and participate in a health status interview. To provide the data needed to create the NEI VFQ-25, all subjects completed an interview that included the 51-item NEI VFQ. Estimates of internal consistency indicate that the subscales of the NEI VFQ-25 are reliable. The validity of the NEI VFQ-25 is supported by high correlations between the short- and long-form versions of the measure, observed between-group differences in scores for persons with different eye diseases of varying severity, and the moderate-to-high correlations between the NEI VFQ-25 subscales that have the most to do with central vision and measured visual acuity. The reliability and validity of the NEI VFQ-25 are comparable to those of the 51-item NEI VFQ field test version of the survey. This shorter version will be more feasible in settings such as clinical trials where interview length is a critical consideration. In addition, preliminary analyses indicate that the psychometric properties of the NEI VFQ-25 are robust for the eye conditions studied; this suggests that the measure will provide reproducible and valid data when used across multiple conditions of varying severity.
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            Dissatisfaction after multifocal intraocular lens implantation.

            To analyze the reasons for patient dissatisfaction after phacoemulsification with multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and the outcomes after intervention. Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This retrospective review comprised eyes of patients dissatisfied with visual outcomes after multifocal IOL implantation. Outcomes analyzed included type of visual complaint, treatment modality for each complaint, and degree of clinical improvement after intervention. Thirty-two patients (43 eyes) reported unwanted visual symptoms after multifocal IOL implantation, including in 28 eyes (65%) with an AcrySof ReSTOR IOL and 15 (35%) with a ReZoom IOL. Thirty patients (41 eyes) reported blurred vision, 15 (18 eyes) reported photic phenomena, and 13 (16 eyes) reported both. Causes of blurred vision included ametropia (12 eyes, 29%), dry eye syndrome (6 eyes, 15%), posterior capsule opacification (PCO) (22 eyes, 54%), and unexplained etiology (1 eye, 2%). Causes of photic phenomena included IOL decentration (2 eyes, 12%), retained lens fragment (1 eye, 6%), PCO (12 eyes, 66%), dry-eye syndrome (1 eye, 2%), and unexplained etiology (2 eyes, 11%). Photic phenomena attributed to PCO also caused blurred vision. Thirty-five eyes (81%) had improvement with conservative treatment. Five eyes (12%) did not have improvement despite treatment combinations. Three eyes (7%) required IOL exchange. Complaints of blurred vision and photic phenomena after multifocal IOL implantation were effectively managed with appropriate treatment. Few eyes (7%) required IOL exchange. Neodymium:YAG capsulotomy should be delayed until it has been determined that IOL exchange will not be necessary.
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              Identifying the content area for the 51-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: results from focus groups with visually impaired persons.

              To identify the content area for a questionnaire designed to measure vision-targeted health-related quality of life and to determine whether problems with vision-related functioning are qualitatively similar across different common eye diseases. Twenty-six condition-specific focus groups were conducted with 246 patients from 5 geographic regions to identify the content area for a questionnaire for use among persons with diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, macular degeneration, cytomegalovirus retinitis, and cataract. A standard protocol was used to structure each focus group discussion. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded in preparation for a content analysis. Five university-based ophthalmology practices and 1 nonprofit eye care foundation. Eligible participants had to have 1 of the following eye conditions: age-related cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, primary open angle glaucoma, cytomegalovirus retinitis, or low vision from any cause. All eligible persons were older than 21 years, spoke English, and had sufficient cognitive function to provide informed consent. Among the 246 participants, 2623 problems with vision-related functioning were mentioned. The mean number of problems per person ranged from 13.5 for those with diabetic retinopathy to 7.9 for persons with glaucoma. For the sample overall, reading problems were mentioned most frequently, followed by driving, general problems with seeing clearly, and mental health complaints caused by vision. Although the proportion of persons who reported each problem varied by condition, at least some persons with each eye disease reported each problem. The 3 most common descriptors associated with each problem were difficulty or ease of performance (13%), psychological distress associated with performance of the activity (11%), and complete inability to participate in a visual activity (11%). An item-generation strategy for a new questionnaire using a standardized focus group method identified content areas and aspects of visual disability that are not included in currently available vision-specific instruments that assess the impact of common eye diseases on visual functioning in every-day life. Although participants mentioned problems that were unique to their disease, across conditions the problems mentioned were similar. These findings provide empirical evidence of content validity for a vision-targeted, health-related quality-of-life survey designed for use across conditions.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                28 June 2013
                : 8
                : 6
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Tsukazaki Hospital, Himeji, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
                Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, China
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: TY HT YK. Performed the experiments: HT HO ZO. Analyzed the data: TY HT KT. Wrote the paper: TY. Designed the software used in analysis: HT.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                The authors have no support or funding to report.
                Research Article
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Ocular System
                Ocular Anatomy
                Sensory Systems
                Visual System
                Population Biology
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Ocular System
                Ocular Anatomy
                Clinical Research Design
                Cataracts and Other Lens Disorders
                Cataract Surgery



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