+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Giardiosis and other enteropathogenic infections: a study on diarrhoeic calves in Southern Germany


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Diarrhoea induces massive problems in the rearing of calves. The aim of the study was to obtain current data about the frequency of Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. in diarrhoeic calves in Southern Germany with the particular focus on giardiosis.


          1564 samples were analysed for the three pathogens using microscopical methods. Giardia spp. was detectable in 112/1564 samples (7.2%). The mean age was 46.5 days and the odds of being infected with Giardia spp. increased slowly up to 8 times from about 12 days to 30 days of age. There appeared to be no seasonal influence on the frequency of Giardia spp. A mono-infection with Giardia spp. was diagnosed in 46 calves (2.9%) whereas 15 calves (1.0%) had a mixed-infection with Cryptosporidium spp. and 51 calves (3.3%) with Eimeria spp. Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. could be detected in 646/1564 samples (41.3%) and 208/1564 samples (13.3%), respectively, with a mean age of 11.3 and 55.0 days, respectively. The odds of being infected with Cryptosporidium spp. increased up to 4.5 times until an age of 10 days. After that the odds decreased continuously and was approaching zero at about 30 days. The odds of being infected with Eimeria spp. increased continuously up to 30 times from about 20 days to 60 days of age. There appeared to be no significant seasonal influence on the frequency of Cryptosporidium spp.; but there was one for Eimeria spp.: the odds of being infected with Eimeria spp. in March and April decreased by about half and increased up to 2.3 times between July and September.

          Additionally, as requested by the veterinarians, 1282 of those samples were analysed for E. coli, Rota-, Coronavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. using an ELISA. Obtained frequencies for these pathogens were 0.9%, 37.8%, 3.4% and 45.3% with a mean age of 24.8 days, 12.1 days, 9.0 days and 12.1 days, respectively.


          The results indicate that in Southern Germany in addition to Eimeria spp., Giardia spp. seems to play a contributing role in diarrhoea in older calves, whereas Cryptosporidium spp. and Rotavirus are mostly relevant in young calves.

          Related collections

          Most cited references47

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Genetic heterogeneity at the beta-giardin locus among human and animal isolates of Giardiaduodenalis and identification of potentially zoonotic subgenotypes.

          Human giardiasis, caused by the intestinal flagellate Giardia duodenalis, is considered a zoonotic infection, although the role of animals in the transmission to humans is still unclear. Molecular characterisation of cysts of human and animal origin represents an objective means to validate or reject this hypothesis. In the present work, cysts were collected in Italy from humans (n=37) and animals (dogs, one cat and calves, n=46), and were characterised by PCR amplification and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene. As expected, only Assemblages A and B were identified among human isolates. The host-specific Assemblages C and D were found in the majority of dog isolates; however, 6 dog isolates were typed as Assemblage A. The cat-specific Assemblage F has been identified in the single feline isolate available. Among calf isolates, most were typed as Assemblages A (n=12) and B (n=5), whereas the host-specific Assemblage E was rarely found (n=3). Sequence heterogeneity in the beta-giardin gene allowed a number of subgenotypes to be identified within Assemblage A (8 subgenotypes), B (6 subgenotypes), D (2 subgenotypes), and E (3 subgenotypes). Five of these subgenotypes, namely A1, A2, A3, A4 and B3, were found to be associated with infections of humans, of dogs and of calves; these data, therefore, supported the role of these animals as a source of infection for humans.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A review of the importance of cryptosporidiosis in farm animals

            Cryptosporidium species are coccidian parasites with a large capacity to reproduce and to disseminate. Several species are known to infect farm animals, although the economic importance of cryptosporidiosis is highly host species dependent. This paper reviews the impact of cryptosporidial infections in livestock and poultry. For different farm animals, the Cryptosporidium spp. that occur, as well as their clinical and pathological features, and their interactions with other pathogens, are described. In addition, data concerning the prevalence, the transmission and the epidemiology of the disease are mentioned and a description of the economic losses associated with cryptosporidiosis in each of the hosts is given. Cryptosporidiosis seems to be mainly a problem in neonatal ruminants. Cryptosporidium parvum is considered to be an important agent in the aetiology of the neonatal diarrhoea syndrome of calves, lambs and goat kids, causing considerable direct and indirect economic losses. Avian cryptosporidiosis is an emerging health problem in poultry, associated with respiratory disease in chickens and other Galliformes, and with intestinal disease in turkeys and quails. Because of limited availability of effective drugs, the control of cryptosporidiosis relies mainly on hygienic measures and good management.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in man and animals.


                Author and article information

                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Research Notes
                BioMed Central
                26 February 2014
                : 7
                : 112
                [1 ]Comparative Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Leopoldstr. 5, D-80802 Munich, Germany
                [2 ]Statistical Consulting Unit, Department of Statistics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Akademiestr. 1, D-80799 Munich, Germany
                Copyright © 2014 Gillhuber et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 1 November 2013
                : 18 February 2014
                Research Article

                giardia,cryptosporidium,eimeria,e. coli,rotavirus,coronaviurs,calf,diarrhoea,epidemiology,prevalence
                giardia, cryptosporidium, eimeria, e. coli, rotavirus, coronaviurs, calf, diarrhoea, epidemiology, prevalence


                Comment on this article