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      High bone turnover elevates the risk of denosumab-induced hypocalcemia in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis

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          Abstract

          Hypocalcemia is the most common major adverse event in patients with osteoporosis receiving the bone resorption inhibitor denosumab; however, limited information is available regarding risk factors of hypocalcemia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of hypocalcemia induced by denosumab treatment for osteoporosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had received initial denosumab supplemented with activated vitamin D for osteoporosis. Serum levels of the following bone turnover markers (BTMs) were measured at baseline: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), total N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX). Of the 85 denosumab-treated patients with osteoporosis studied, 22 (25.9%) developed hypocalcemia. Baseline serum total P1NP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly higher in patients with hypocalcemia than in those with normocalcemia following denosumab administration (all P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with total P1NP >76.5 μg/L, TRACP-5b >474 mU/dL, or urinary NTX >49.5 nmol bone collagen equivalent/mmol creatinine had a higher risk of hypocalcemia ( P<0.01). Our study suggests that denosumab may have a greater impact on serum calcium levels in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with higher baseline bone turnover than in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with normal baseline bone turnover, because maintenance of normal serum calcium in this subgroup is more dependent on bone resorption. Close monitoring of serum calcium levels is strongly recommended for denosumab-treated patients with high bone turnover, despite supplementation with activated vitamin D and oral calcium.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Diagnostic criteria for primary osteoporosis: year 2012 revision.

          In 1995, the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Metabolism (now the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research) established the Osteoporosis Diagnostic Criteria Review Committee. Following discussion held at the 13th scientific meeting of the Society in 1996, the Committee, with the consensus of its members, proposed diagnostic criteria for primary osteoporosis. The Committee revised those criteria in 1998 and again in 2000. The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Japan Osteoporosis Society Joint Review Committee for the Revision of the Diagnostic Criteria for Primary Osteoporosis aimed at obtaining international consistency and made a revised edition based on the new findings in 2012.
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            A Single-Dose Study of Denosumab in Patients With Various Degrees of Renal Impairment

            This 16-week study evaluated pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of denosumab in 55 subjects with renal function ranging from normal to dialysis-dependent kidney failure. Participants received a single 60-mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab. Kidney function groups were based on calculations using the Cockcroft-Gault equation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance in place when the study was designed. Renal function did not have a significant effect on denosumab pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. These findings suggest denosumab dose adjustment based on glomerular filtration rate is not required. Rapid decreases in serum C-telopeptide in all groups were sustained throughout the study. The most common adverse events were hypocalcemia (15%), pain in extremity (15%), and nausea (11%). Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation was not initially required by the study protocol, but was added during the trial. No subject who received adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation became hypocalcemic. Seven subjects had nadir serum calcium concentrations between 7.5 and <8.0 mg/dL (1.9 and <2.0 mmol/L), and 5 subjects (4 with advanced renal disease) had nadir serum calcium <7.5 mg/dL (<1.9 mmol/L). Two subjects (1 symptomatic, 1 asymptomatic) were hospitalized for intravenous calcium gluconate treatment. At the recommended dose, denosumab is a useful therapeutic option for patients with impaired renal function. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended when patients initiate denosumab therapy, particularly in patients with reduced renal function. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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              A new active vitamin D3 analog, eldecalcitol, prevents the risk of osteoporotic fractures--a randomized, active comparator, double-blind study.

              Eldecalcitol is an analog of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) that improves bone mineral density; however, the effect of eldecalcitol on the risk of fractures is unclear. The objective of this study is to examine whether eldecalcitol is superior to alfacalcidol in preventing osteoporotic fractures. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00144456. This 3 year randomized, double-blind, active comparator, superiority trial tested the efficacy of daily oral 0.75 μg eldecalcitol versus 1.0 μg alfacalcidol for prevention of osteoporotic fractures. 1054 osteoporotic patients 46 to 92 years old were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive eldecalcitol (n=528) or alfacalcidol (n=526). Patients were stratified by study site and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. Patients with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (<50 nmol/L) were supplemented with 400 IU/day vitamin D(3). Primary end point was incident vertebral fractures. Secondary end points included any non-vertebral fractures and change in bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Compared with the alfacalcidol group, the incidence of vertebral fractures was lower in eldecalcitol group after 36 months of treatment (13.4 vs. 17.5%; hazard ratio, 0.74; predefined 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.97). Eldecalcitol reduced turnover markers and increased bone mineral density more strongly than alfacalcidol. Eldecalcitol reduced the incidence of three major non-vertebral fractures, which was due to a marked reduction in wrist fractures by a post-hoc analysis (1.1 vs. 3.6%; hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.77). Among the adverse events, the incidence of increase in serum and urinary calcium was higher in the eldecalcitol group, without any difference in glomerular filtration rate between the two groups. Eldecalcitol is more efficacious than alfacalcidol in preventing vertebral and wrist fractures in osteoporotic patients with vitamin D sufficiency, with a safety profile similar to alfacalcidol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                05 December 2016
                : 12
                : 1831-1840
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo
                [2 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yamanashi Red Cross Hospital, Yamanashi
                [3 ]Department of Public Health, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Koji Ishikawa, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8666, Japan, Tel +81 3 3784 8543, Fax +81 3 3784 9005, Email o9o16979696koji@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-12-1831
                10.2147/TCRM.S123172
                5147395
                © 2016 Ishikawa et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                denosumab, hypocalcemia, bone turnover, osteoporosis

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