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      Proven Strategies to Reduce Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Background: In hemodialysis patients, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) correlates with mortality. The reason for LVH in uremics is multifactorial. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a multi-interventional treatment strategy on LVH. Methods: In 230 ambulatory patients, including patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes, diastolic and systolic dysfunction, we continued optimized cardiac therapy (β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers) with full anemia correction by intravenous epoetin-β. The dose of epoetin-β for maintaining target hemoglobin (Hb) was 68 ± 23 IU/kg/week. Serial echocardiograms were recorded every 3–6 months. The mean observation period was 4.8 ± 1.2 years. Results: Mean Hb at baseline was 11.2 ± 2.0 versus 14.1 ± 1.4 g/dl (p < 0.001) at study end. There was a significant reduction in left ventricular mass index (LVMI: 159 ± 50.4 vs. 130.2 ± 42.7 g/m<sup>2</sup>; p < 0.001). In a subgroup of 2/3 of the patients, LVMI returned to normal (169 ± 33 vs. 114 ± 14 g/m<sup>2</sup>; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Baseline LVMI (p < 0.001), Hb increase (p < 0.03), and triple cardiac therapy (p < 0.03) were significant and independent prognostic factors for a reduction in LVMI. The annual cardiovascular mortality was 5%. Even anemia correction from 12 to 14 g/dl results in further (p < 0.001) regression of LVMI.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Poor long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients on long-term dialysis.

          Cardiovascular disease is common in patients on long-term dialysis, and it accounts for 44 percent of overall mortality in this group. We undertook a study to assess long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients in the United States who were receiving long-term dialysis. Patients on dialysis who were hospitalized during the period from 1977 to 1995 for a first myocardial infarction after the initiation of renal-replacement therapy were retrospectively identified from the U.S. Renal Data System data base. Overall mortality and mortality from cardiac causes (including all in-hospital deaths) were estimated by the life-table method. The effect of independent predictors on survival was examined in a Cox regression model with adjustment for existing illnesses. The overall mortality (+/-SE) after acute myocardial infarction among 34,189 patients on long-term dialysis was 59.3+/-0.3 percent at one year, 73.0+/-0.3 percent at two years, and 89.9+/-0.2 percent at five years. The mortality from cardiac causes was 40.8+/-0.3 percent at one year, 51.8+/-0.3 percent at two years, and 70.2+/-0.4 percent at five years. Patients who were older or had diabetes had higher mortality than patients without these characteristics. Adverse outcomes occurred even in patients who had acute myocardial infarction in 1990 through 1995. Also, the mortality rate after myocardial infarction was considerably higher for patients on long-term dialysis than for renal-transplant recipients. Patients on dialysis who have acute myocardial infarction have high mortality from cardiac causes and poor long-term survival.
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            Clinical and echocardiographic disease in patients starting end-stage renal disease therapy

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              Congestive heart failure in dialysis patients: prevalence, incidence, prognosis and risk factors.

               R Foley,  P Parfrey,  P Barre (1995)
              Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in dialysis subjects. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common presenting symptom of cardiovascular disease in the dialysis population. Information regarding prevalence, incidence, risk factors and prognosis is crucial for planning rational interventional studies. A prospective multicenter cohort study of 432 dialysis patients followed for a mean of 41 months was carried out. Prospective information on a variety of risk factors was collected. Annual echocardiography and clinical assessment was performed. Major endpoints included death and the development of morbid cardiovascular events. One hundred and thirty-three (31%) subjects had CHF at the time of initiation of dialysis therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that the following risk factors were significantly and independently associated with CHF at baseline: systolic dysfunction, older age, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. Seventy-six of 299 subjects (25%) who did not have baseline CHF subsequently developed CHF during their course on dialysis. Compared to those subjects who never developed CHF (N = 218) multivariate analysis identified the following risk factors for the development of CHF: older age, anemia during dialysis therapy, hypoalbuminemia, hypertension during dialysis therapy, and systolic dysfunction. Seventy-five of the 133 (56%) subjects with CHF at baseline had recurrent CHF during follow-up. Independent and significant risk factors for CHF recurrence were ischemic heart disease and systolic dysfunction, anemia during dialysis therapy and hypoalbuminemia. The median survival of subjects with CHF at baseline was 36 months compared to 62 months in subjects without CHF. In this study the prevalence of CHF on starting ESRD therapy and the subsequent annual incidence was high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                December 2005
                23 December 2005
                : 24
                : 1
                : 100-106
                a Nierenzentrum, Kuratorium für Heimdialyse und Nierentransplantation, bInstitute of Cardiology, and cDepartment of Chemistry/Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, and dDepartment of Cardiology, 1st Medical Clinic, University Hospital Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
                89445 Blood Purif 2006;24:100–106
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 29, Pages: 7
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