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      Rociletinib in EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer.

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          Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a mutation in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is sensitive to approved EGFR inhibitors, but resistance develops, mediated by the T790M EGFR mutation in most cases. Rociletinib (CO-1686) is an EGFR inhibitor active in preclinical models of EGFR-mutated NSCLC with or without T790M.

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          Clinical definition of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer.

          Ten percent of North American patients with non-small-cell lung cancer have tumors with somatic mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Approximately 70% of patients whose lung cancers harbor somatic mutations in exons encoding the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR experience significant tumor regressions when treated with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib or erlotinib. However, the overwhelming majority of these patients inevitably acquire resistance to either drug. Currently, the clinical definition of such secondary or acquired resistance is not clear. We propose the following criteria be used to define more precisely acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. All patients should have the following criteria: previous treatment with a single-agent EGFR TKI (eg, gefitinib or erlotinib); either or both of the following: a tumor that harbors an EGFR mutation known to be associated with drug sensitivity or objective clinical benefit from treatment with an EGFR TKI; systemic progression of disease (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] or WHO) while on continuous treatment with gefitinib or erlotinib within the last 30 days; and no intervening systemic therapy between cessation of gefitinib or erlotinib and initiation of new therapy. The relatively simple definition proposed here will lead to a more uniform approach to investigating the problem of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs in this unique patient population. These guidelines should minimize reporting of false-positive and false-negative activity in these clinical trials and would facilitate the identification of agents that truly overcome acquired resistance to gefitinib and erlotinib.
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            Dual inhibition of EGFR with afatinib and cetuximab in kinase inhibitor-resistant EGFR-mutant lung cancer with and without T790M mutations.

            EGFR-mutant lung cancers responsive to reversible EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib/erlotinib) develop acquired resistance, mediated by second-site EGFR T790M mutation in >50% of cases. Preclinically, afatinib (irreversible ErbB family blocker) plus cetuximab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody) overcomes T790M-mediated resistance. This phase Ib study combining afatinib and cetuximab enrolled heavily pretreated patients with advanced EGFR-mutant lung cancer and acquired resistance to erlotinib/gefitinib. Patients provided post-acquired-resistance tumor samples for profiling EGFR mutations. Among 126 patients, objective response rate (overall 29%) was comparable in T790M-positive and T790M-negative tumors (32% vs. 25%; P = 0.341). Median progression-free survival was 4.7 months (95% confidence interval, 4.3-6.4), and the median duration of confirmed objective response was 5.7 months (range, 1.8-24.4). Therapy-related grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 44%/2% of patients. Afatinib-cetuximab demonstrated robust clinical activity and a manageable safety profile in EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to gefitinib or erlotinib, both with and without T790M mutations, warranting further investigation. This article reports the results of a trial combining afatinib and cetuximab in patients with acquired resistance and details the first clinical proof-of-concept for the preclinical hypothesis that a significant proportion of tumors in patients with acquired resistance to gefitinib/erlotinib remain dependent on EGFR signaling for survival. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
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              LUX-Lung 4: a phase II trial of afatinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer who progressed during prior treatment with erlotinib, gefitinib, or both.

              New molecular targeted agents are needed for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who progress while receiving erlotinib, gefitinib, or both. Afatinib, an oral irreversible ErbB family blocker, has preclinical activity in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR [ErbB1]) mutant models with EGFR-activating mutations, including T790M. This was a Japanese single-arm phase II trial conducted in patients with stage IIIB to IV pulmonary adenocarcinoma who progressed after ≥ 12 weeks of prior erlotinib and/or gefitinib. Patients received afatinib 50 mg per day. The primary end point was objective response rate (complete response or partial response) by independent review. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Of 62 treated patients, 45 (72.6%) were EGFR mutation positive in their primary tumor according to local and/or central laboratory analyses. Fifty-one patients (82.3%) fulfilled the criteria of acquired resistance to erlotinib and/or gefitinib. Of 61 evaluable patients, five (8.2%; 95% CI, 2.7% to 18.1%) had a confirmed objective response rate (partial response). Median PFS was 4.4 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 4.6 months), and median OS was 19.0 months (95% CI, 14.9 months to not achieved). Two patients had acquired T790M mutations: L858R + T790M, and deletion in exon 19 + T790M; they had stable disease for 9 months and 1 month, respectively. The most common afatinib-related adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea (100%) and rash/acne (91.9%). Treatment-related AEs leading to afatinib discontinuation were experienced by 18 patients (29%), of whom four also had progressive disease. Afatinib demonstrated modest but noteworthy efficacy in patients with NSCLC who had received third- or fourth-line treatment and who progressed while receiving erlotinib and/or gefitinib, including those with acquired resistance to erlotinib, gefitinib, or both.

                Author and article information

                N. Engl. J. Med.
                The New England journal of medicine
                New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)
                Apr 30 2015
                : 372
                : 18
                [1 ] From Massachusetts General Hospital (L.V.S., R.S.H., J.L., Z.P.), Harvard Medical School (L.V.S., G.R.O., R.S.H., Z.P.), and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (G.R.O.) - all in Boston; the Drug Development Department, Université Paris-Sud, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (J.-C.S.), and Institut Gustave Roussy (A.V.), Villejuif - both in France; the David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (J.W.G., E.B.G., M.A.M., S.N.), and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford (H.A.W., J.W.N.) - both in California; the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit (S.M.G., C.G., A.J.W.); University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (V.P.); the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (B.J.S.); the Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland (R.D.); the University of Colorado (D.L.A., D.R.C.) and University of Colorado Cancer Center (R.C.D.) - both in Aurora; and Clovis Oncology, San Francisco (M.R., C.A.K., S.J.-T., S.L.M., A.R.A.), Boulder, CO (J.I., D.D.), and Cambridge, United Kingdom (L.R.).


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