New approaches to the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed to address the reported crisis in PTSD drug development. These new approaches may require the field to move beyond a narrow fear-based perspective, as fear-based medications have not yet demonstrated compelling efficacy. Antidepressants, particularly recent rapid-acting antidepressants, exert complex effects on brain function and structure that build on novel aspects of the biology of PTSD, including a role for stress-related synaptic dysconnectivity in the neurobiology and treatment of PTSD. Here, we integrate this perspective within a broader framework—in other words, a dual pathology model of (a) stress-related synaptic loss arising from amino acid–based pathology and (b) stress-related synaptic gain related to monoamine-based pathology. Then, we summarize the standard and experimental (e.g., ketamine) pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD and discuss their putative mechanism of action and clinical efficacy.