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      Concomitância de fibromialgia em pacientes com espondilite anquilosante Translated title: Occurrence of fibromyalgia in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

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          Abstract

          INTRODUÇÃO: A Espondilite Anquilosante (EA) é uma doença inflamatória crônica que acomete o esqueleto axial. Cursa com dor e incapacidade funcional. Para medir o impacto da EA na vida dos pacientes são utilizados questionários que avaliam a atividade da doença (BASDAI); a incapacidade funcional (BASFI); e a qualidade de vida (ASQoL). A Fibromialgia (FM) é uma das causas mais comuns de dor generalizada e pode coexistir com outras doenças; pode ser avaliada por meio do questionário de impacto da Fibromialgia (FIQ). Há poucos estudos demonstrando correlações entre FM e EA. O presente estudo obteve dados referentes ao perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com EA e FM e avaliou a prevalência de FM em portadores de EA. Avaliou-se a interferência da FM nos escores dos testes BASDAI, BASFI e ASQoL. PACIENTES E MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 71 pacientes portadores de EA diagnosticados de acordo com os critérios modificados de Nova York. Avaliação clínica, funcional e aplicação dos testes BASDAI, BASFI e ASQoL foram realizados. Os pacientes com diagnóstico de FM foram avaliados com o FIQ. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes preencheram os critérios para FM, observando-se assim uma prevalência de 15% de FM entre os pacientes com EA, sendo mais frequente entre as mulheres (3,8:1). A idade de início da doença (EA) foi de 27,5 anos. O antígeno HLA-B27 foi positivo na grande maioria (80,4%). Comparando-se as médias dos testes BASDAI, BASFI e ASQoL, verificou-se que os valores são significativamente superiores (P < 0,01) entre os pacientes com FM. Concluiu-se que a coexistência da FM pode piorar os aspectos de atividade na EA, a incapacidade funcional e a qualidade de vida

          Translated abstract

          INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the axial skeletal system, causing pain and functional incapacity. To measure the impact of AS on patient's life, questionnaires are used to assess disease activity (BASDAI); functional incapacity (BASFI); and quality of life (ASQoL). Fibromyalgia (FM) is one of the most common causes of generalized pain and can coexist with other diseases; it can be assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Few studies have demonstrated correlations between FM and AS. The present study obtained data regarding the epidemiologic profile of patients with AS and FM and evaluated the prevalence of FM in patients with AS. The FM influence on BASDAI, BASFI and ASQoL test scores was assessed. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A total of 71 patients with AS, diagnosed according to the modified New York criteria, were studied. Clinical and functional assessment was performed and BASDAI, BASFI and ASQoL tests were applied. Patients with a diagnosis of FM were evaluated through the FIQ. RESULTS: Eleven patients met the criteria for FM; thus a FM prevalence of 15% was observed among the patients with AS. FM was more prevalent among women (3.8:1). Age at disease onset (AS) was 27.5 years. The HLA-B27 antigen was positive in most of them (80.4%). When comparing BASDAI, BASFI and ASQoL test means, it was observed that values are significantly higher (P < 0.01) among patients with FM. We concluded that the coexistence of FM can worsen AS activity aspects, as well as functional incapacity and quality of life

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          Most cited references42

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          Inflammatory back pain in ankylosing spondylitis: a reassessment of the clinical history for application as classification and diagnostic criteria.

          Back pain associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is referred to as inflammatory back pain (IBP). The value of the clinical history in differentiating IBP from mechanical low back pain (MLBP) has been investigated in only a few studies. In this exploratory study, we sought to evaluate the individual features of IBP and to compose and compare various combinations of features for use as classification and diagnostic criteria. We assessed the clinical history of 213 patients (101 with AS and 112 with MLBP) younger than 50 years who had chronic back pain. Single clinical parameters and combinations of parameters were compared between the AS and MLBP patient groups. Morning stiffness of >30 minutes' duration, age at onset of back pain, no improvement in back pain with rest, awakening because of back pain during the second half of the night only, alternating buttock pain, and time period of the onset of back pain were identified as independent contributors to IBP. Importantly, none of the single parameters sufficiently differentiated AS from MLBP. In contrast, several sets of combined parameters proved to be well balanced between sensitivity and specificity. Among these, a new candidate set of criteria for IBP, which consisted of morning stiffness of >30 minutes' duration, improvement in back pain with exercise but not with rest, awakening because of back pain during the second half of the night only, and alternating buttock pain, yielded a sensitivity of 70.3% and a specificity of 81.2% if at least 2 of these 4 parameters were fulfilled (positive likelihood ratio 3.7). If at least 3 of the 4 parameters were fulfilled, the positive likelihood ratio increased to 12.4. A new set of criteria for IBP performed better than previous criteria in AS patients with established disease. A prospective study is needed to validate the diagnostic properties of the new candidate criteria set in patients with early disease.
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            Large differences in cost of illness and wellbeing between patients with fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, or ankylosing spondylitis.

            To compare the cost of illness of three musculoskeletal conditions in relation to general wellbeing. Patients with fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain (CLBP), and ankylosing spondylitis who were referred to a specialist and participated in three randomised trials completed a cost diary for the duration of the study, comprising direct medical and non-medical resource utilisation and inability to perform paid and unpaid work. Patients rated perceived wellbeing (0-100) at baseline. Univariate differences in costs between the groups were estimated by bootstrapping. Regression analyses assessed which variables, in addition to the condition, contributed to costs and wellbeing. 70 patients with fibromyalgia, 110 with chronic low back pain, and 111 with ankylosing spondylitis provided data for the cost analyses. Average annual disease related total societal costs per patient were 7813 euro for fibromyalgia, 8533 euro for CLBP, and 3205 euro for ankylosing spondylitis. Total costs were higher for fibromyalgia and CLBP than for ankylosing spondylitis, mainly because of cost of formal and informal care, aids and adaptations, and work days lost. Wellbeing was lower in fibromyalgia (mean, 48) and low back pain (mean, 42) than in ankylosing spondylitis (mean, 67). No variables other than diagnostic group contributed to differences in costs or wellbeing. In patients under the care of a specialist, there were marked differences in costs and wellbeing between those with fibromyalgia or CLBP and those with ankylosing spondylitis. In particular, direct non-medical costs and productivity costs were higher in fibromyalgia and CLBP.
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              The risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis in HLA-B27 positive individuals. A comparison of relatives of spondylitis patients with the general population.

              The present study was performed on 61 HLA-B27 positive first-degree relatives and 40 HLA-B27 negative relatives of 20 HLA-B27 positive probands with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Of 24 HLA-B27 positive relatives 45 years or older, 21% had AS and 38% sacroiliitis. The HLA-B27 negative relatives did not have features of either disease. In the population study of 2,957 individuals 45 years or older, we found 5 cases of HLA-B27 positive sacroiliitis (according to the New York criteria) and 3 of these fulfilled the New York criteria for diagnosis of AS. In 2 of these 3 individuals, the diagnosis was made on clinical grounds. The phenotype frequency of HLA-B27 in this population is 7.8%, or about 230 HLA-B27 positive individuals in this population sample. Since AS was found in only 3 individuals, 1.3% of the HLA-B27 positive individuals in the population at large have AS; therefore, our data show that among individuals 45 years or older, 21% of HLA-B27 positive relatives of HLA-B27 positive AS patients have AS as compared with 1.3% of the HLA-B27 positive individuals in the population at large. Thus, the risk for AS is 16 times greater in the HLA-B27 positive relatives compared with HLA-B27 positive individuals in the population at large. The discriminatory value of the New York criterion of history of pain or the presence of pain at the dorsolumbar junction or in the lumbar spine was analyzed in the population and family studies and was found to be too nonspecific.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbr
                Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
                Rev. Bras. Reumatol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                0482-5004
                1809-4570
                December 2010
                : 50
                : 6
                : 646-650
                Affiliations
                [01] orgnameUFPR
                Article
                S0482-50042010000600005
                10.1590/S0482-50042010000600005
                1354e905-0c6e-402a-b3dc-6c8eabc2f018

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 11 November 2010
                : 22 April 2010
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 5
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                SciELO Brazil

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                Artigo Original

                espondilite anquilosante,fibromialgia,avaliação do perfil de impacto da doença,ankylosing spondylitis,fibromyalgia,health impact profile evaluation

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