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      Growth Hormone and Testosterone: Effects on Whole Body Metabolism and Skeletal Muscle in Adolescence

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Adolescents, Growth hormone, Metabolism, Muscle, Testosterone

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          Abstract

          The characteristic changes in human puberty – increased muscle bulk, increased linear growth, and the mineralization of the skeleton – are due, in part, to the combined effects of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), sex hormones and insulin. GH and testosterone, but not oestrogen, are highly protein-anabolic in vivo, and the combined administration of GH and testosterone has synergistic effects on these measures, both in children and adults. GH has no significant effect on enhancing skeletal muscle strength in humans; however, testosterone is highly ergogenic and is largely responsible for the differences in muscle bulk apparent in late puberty between the genders. The results of recent detailed metabolic studies suggest that boys have higher rates of protein synthesis and IGF-I generation than girls, given comparable doses of GH. In patients with a constitutional delay in growth and maturation, relative deficiencies in testosterone and lower IGF-I concentrations are associated with greater rates of total energy expenditure, suggesting that this relatively hormone-insufficient state is associated with a hypermetabolic state. Whether added nutritional supplements, alone or in combination with GH, could improve the growth pattern and final height of these children deserves further study. In conclusion, the metabolic effects of GH and testosterone are complex and they synergize in puberty. These hormones could be of use as protein-anabolic agents in selected catabolic conditions.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          Horm Res Paediatr
          10.1159/issn.1663-2818
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-8244-5
          978-3-318-01440-2
          1663-2818
          1663-2826
          2006
          January 2007
          25 January 2007
          : 66
          : Suppl 1
          : 42-48
          Affiliations
          Nemours Children’s Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla., USA
          Article
          96622 Horm Res 2006;66:42–48
          10.1159/000096622
          © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 41, Pages: 7
          Categories
          Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones on Muscle Structure and Function – Clinical and ...

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