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      Mpemba Effect- the Effect of Time

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      Mpemba effect, inverse Mpamba effect, nature of time , time

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          Abstract

          This paper draws the following conclusions on the nature of time by analyzing the relationship between time and speed, the relationship between time and gravitational field, the gravitational redshift of the photon, and the black-body radiation theorem:

          Time on an object is proportional to the amount of energy flowing out (or in) per unit time (observer’s time) per unit surface area of the object.

          When an object radiates energy outward:

          t'=μB(T) =μσT 4=μnhν/st

          Where t’ is the time on the object, μ is a constant, B(T) is the radiosity,the total energy radiated from the unit surface area of the object in unit time (observer’s time), σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T is the absolute temperature, n is the number of the photons radiated, ν is the average frequency of the photons radiated, s is the surface area of the object and t is the time on the observer.

          When the object radiates energy outward, the higher the energy density of the space (for example the stronger the gravitational field of the space), the smaller the radiosity B(T) of the object in the space, the longer the average wavelength of the light quantum emitted by the object, the slower the time on the object, the longer the life of the system.

          When the object radiates energy outward, the faster the object moves relative to the ether, the higher the energy density of the local space in which the object is located, the smaller the radiosity B(T) of the object, the longer the average wavelength of the light quantum radiated by the object, the slower the time on the object, and the longer the life of the system.

          When the object radiates energy outward, the higher the temperature of the object, the greater the object's radiosity B(T), the shorter the average wavelength of the light quantum radiated by the object, the faster the time on the object, and the shorter the life of the system.

          Applying the above conclusions about the nature of time, the author analyzes the Mpemba effect and the inverse Mpemba effect, and reaches the following conclusion: the Mpemba effect is the time effect produced when heat flows from objects into space, and the "inverse" Mpemba effect is the time effect produced when heat flows from space into objects.

          Revision notes

          The revised version mainly adds the accurate definition of time and the relevant analysis and discussion to the original version.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          ScienceOpen Preprints
          ScienceOpen
          18 August 2021
          Affiliations
          [1 ] College of Physics and Energy, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong, P. R. China
          Author notes
          Article
          10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPXTYIJ.v2

          This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

          All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).

          Physics

          Mpemba effect, inverse Mpamba effect, nature of time , time

          Comments

          Brief summary: It is possible that, under certain circumstances, a sample of hot water can take less time to freeze

          Even the paper is interesting, however there are some points have not been tackled as the role of the crystallization of the aqueous phase on the conformity of Mpemba effect.

          "Based on the above time-related conclusions, we can explain why quasars have such short lifetimes [12] [13],[14],[15]. Due to the extremely high temperature (up to 4 × 1013K) of quasars, the average wavelength of the photons emitted by the quasars is very short, and the radiosity B(T) of the quasars is very high, which means that the time on the quasars passes very quickly, so the lifetime of the quasars is very short" It is likely to denote to Shechtman’s quasicrystals.

          "In the Mpemba experiment, the water is not in a vacuum, but in the air, so in addition to the presence of heat radiation in water, there are also heat exchange and heat convection between water and air" That is not clear whether natural convection can alone explain the Mpemba effect.

          "Recently, two physicists Avinash Kumar and John Bechhoefer from simon fraser university, Canada, have bypassed the complexity of water by replacing water molecules with tiny glass beads, developing a method to exhibit the Mpemba effect in a controllable environment, confirming that when two systems with different initial temperatures are cooled to the same temperature, the system with higher initial temperatures can take less time than the system with lower temperatures" The Mpemba effect should happen only to systems with involvement of strong correlation of the intermolecular bonding and intramolecular nonbonding interactions and the higher thermal diffusivity dominated by the lower mass density. Mpemba effect happens unlikely to regular substance because the material bond contraction lowers the thermal diffusivity, and the cooling bond contraction absorbs energy. Besides, more importantly, hot water is unlikely to have the same composition as cold water. Water is almost never pure H2O. It usually contains dissolved gases, minerals and trace compounds, some of biological origin. These impurities change the temperature at which freezing occurs. In some cases, very small quantities of certain impurities (called ice nucleators) could increase the temperature at which freezing occurs by several degrees or more. Very small changes in composition can have a big effect because of the phenomenon of supercooling. This effect requires a bit of explanation after discussing the Equilibrium freezing and discriminating between Newtonian cooling and non-Newtonian cooling.

          "In fact, hot water freezes faster than cold water is a mystery that has been around for thousands of years" Consider that the O:H-O bond exhibits memory with thermal momentum during cooling. The linear velocity of the H-O bond DdH/Dt is the product of slopes for the known temperature dependence of H-O length dH(q) and the measured initial temperature and time dependence of water temperature q(qi, t) as inset. Because of the Coulomb coupling of the O:H and H-O, the velocity Ddx/Dt and energy rate DEx/Dt (x = L for O:H and x = H for H-O) can be readily derived but here we can see that the representative only for simplicity. The initially shorter H-O bond at higher temperature remains highly active compared to its behavior otherwise when they meet on the way to freezing.

          "Although the blackbody is only an ideal object, any object can be approximated as a

          blackbody, and its thermal radiation will follow Planck's law. Because any system (such as the heat of an object, or the deuterium tritium nucleofusion energy of a star) is composed of quantum" More explanation is needed of why is the temperature at which freezing occurs spontaneously usually rather lower than the equilibrium freezing temperature? Why would the freezing temperatures be different? It could be chance: perhaps one sample has more effective ice nucleators than the other – and remember that it only takes one nucleator to initiate freezing. Further, because some of the nucleators are biochemicals, it is possible that even moderate of heating one of the solutions might change the effectiveness of the nucleators.

          The Conclusion of the Abstract has not been written!

          Keywords  have repeated the words used in the Title!

          "a junior three student named Mpemba" What does that mean?

          The caption of Figure has not been provided!

          I found some grammatical mistakes and the layout of the references is not consistent.

          2021-10-22 13:49 UTC
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