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      Microbial network disturbances in relapsing refractory Crohn’s disease

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          Most cited references105

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          Ulcerative colitis

          Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the colon, and its incidence is rising worldwide. The pathogenesis is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulated immune responses, and environmental factors. Patients with ulcerative colitis have mucosal inflammation starting in the rectum that can extend continuously to proximal segments of the colon. Ulcerative colitis usually presents with bloody diarrhoea and is diagnosed by colonoscopy and histological findings. The aim of management is to induce and then maintain remission, defined as resolution of symptoms and endoscopic healing. Treatments for ulcerative colitis include 5-aminosalicylic acid drugs, steroids, and immunosuppressants. Some patients can require colectomy for medically refractory disease or to treat colonic neoplasia. The therapeutic armamentarium for ulcerative colitis is expanding, and the number of drugs with new targets will rapidly increase in coming years.
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            Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides.

            Resistant starch (RS) is starch and products of its small intestinal digestion that enter the large bowel. It occurs for various reasons including chemical structure, cooking of food, chemical modification, and food mastication. Human colonic bacteria ferment RS and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; major components of dietary fiber) to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate. SCFA stimulate colonic blood flow and fluid and electrolyte uptake. Butyrate is a preferred substrate for colonocytes and appears to promote a normal phenotype in these cells. Fermentation of some RS types favors butyrate production. Measurement of colonic fermentation in humans is difficult, and indirect measures (e.g., fecal samples) or animal models have been used. Of the latter, rodents appear to be of limited value, and pigs or dogs are preferable. RS is less effective than NSP in stool bulking, but epidemiological data suggest that it is more protective against colorectal cancer, possibly via butyrate. RS is a prebiotic, but knowledge of its other interactions with the microflora is limited. The contribution of RS to fermentation and colonic physiology seems to be greater than that of NSP. However, the lack of a generally accepted analytical procedure that accommodates the major influences on RS means this is yet to be established.
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              Crohn's disease.

              Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions. Current strategies aim for deep and long-lasting remission, with the goal of preventing complications, such as surgery, and blocking disease progression. Central to these strategies is the introduction of early immunosuppression or combination therapy with biologicals in high-risk patients, combined with a tight and frequent control of inflammation, and adjustment of therapy on the basis of that assessment (treat to target strategy). The therapeutic armamentarium for Crohn's disease is expanding, and therefore the need to develop biomarkers that can predict response to therapies will become increasingly important for personalised medicine decisions in the near future. In this Seminar, we provide a physician-oriented overview of Crohn's disease in adults, ranging from epidemiology and cause to clinical diagnosis, natural history, patient stratification and clinical management, and ending with an overview of emerging therapies and future directions for research.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Medicine
                Nat Med
                Springer Nature
                1078-8956
                1546-170X
                January 21 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41591-018-0308-z
                30664783
                135e308a-467d-400a-a333-831f8d1d2de5
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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