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      Detraining: Loss of Training-Induced Physiological and Performance Adaptations. Part I : Short Term Insufficient Training Stimulus

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      Sports Medicine
      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references10

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          Effect of training on lactate/ventilatory thresholds: a meta-analysis.

          B Londeree (1997)
          The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of exercise training intensity on the lactate and ventilatory thresholds in sedentary and in active subjects using meta-analysis procedures. The original analyses included 85 study groups from 34 studies. The dependent variable was oxygen consumption at the specified threshold, and the independent variables were training intensity (control and four intensities ranging from below threshold to near maximum) and fitness level (sedentary and conditioned). Data were analyzed statistically using methods described by Hedges and Olkin (13). The results showed that sedentary subjects (effect size (ES) = 2.32) improved significantly over controls (ES = 0.15), while conditioned subjects (ES = 0.63) showed nonsignificant gains. There were no significant differences among training intensities within the fitness categories (Sed ES = 1.6 - 3.1; Cond ES = 0.3 - 1.1) although the conditioned subjects tended to respond better to high intensity training (ES of 1.1 vs 0.4). It was concluded that training at an intensity near the lactate or ventilatory threshold is an adequate training stimulus for improving the thresholds for sedentary subjects, but a higher intensity may be necessary for conditioned subjects. Detraining will reduce lactate and ventilatory thresholds.
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            Modeled responses to training and taper in competitive swimmers.

            This study investigated the effect of training on performance and assessed the response to taper in elite swimmers (N = 18), using a mathematical model that links training with performance and estimates the negative and positive influences of training, NI and PI. Variations in training, performance, NI, and PI were studied during 3-, 4-, and 6-wk tapers. The fit between modeled and actual performance was significant for 17 subjects; r2 ranged from 0.45 to 0.85, P < 0.05. Training was progressively reduced during tapers. Performance improved during the first two tapers: 2.90 +/- 1.50% (P < 0.01) and 3.20 +/- 1.70% (P < 0.01). Performance improvement in the third taper was not significant (1.81 +/- 1.73%). NI was reduced during the first two tapers (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), but not during the third. PI did not change significantly during tapers. Thus, the present results show that the model used is a valuable method to describe the effects of training on performance. Performance improvement during taper was attributed to a reduction in NI. PI did not improve with taper, but it was not compromised by the reduced training periods.
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              The effects of taper on performance in distance runners.

              The purpose of this study was to determine if a 7-d systematic reduction in training volume or "taper" could improve distance running performance. Three groups of eight runners were examined: 1) run taper, 2) cycle taper, and 3) control. Training in the run taper group consisted of high-intensity intervals and an 85% reduction in training volume. The cycle taper group performed an equivalent amount of interval training as the run taper group, but each member exercised on a cycle ergometer. Control subjects continued normal training. A self-paced 5-km time trial served as the index of performance. The run taper group decreased 5-km time by 3% (1036.2 +/- 30.6 to 1006.8 +/- 28.2 s, P < 0.005). A significant decrease (P < 0.01) in submaximal oxygen consumption (6%) and calculated caloric expenditure (7%) at a running speed eliciting 80% of VO2max was also evident in the run taper group. Five-km performance and running economy were not altered in the cycle taper or control groups. These findings indicate that 7 d of tapered running improved distance running performance and running economy. A taper regimen of equivalent duration cycle training maintained performance in distance runners.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sports Medicine
                Sports Medicine
                Springer Nature
                0112-1642
                2000
                2000
                : 30
                : 2
                : 79-87
                Article
                10.2165/00007256-200030020-00002
                10966148
                1366658f-ad87-4a1d-955e-29863ea6c2f5
                © 2000
                History

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