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      Novel 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives: design, synthesis, in vitro P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance reversal profile and molecular dynamics simulation study

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          Abstract

          Overexpression of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the important mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in many tumor cells. In this study, 26 novel 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives containing different nitrophenyl moieties at C 4 and various carboxamide substituents at C 3 were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit P-gp by measuring the amount of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation in uterine sarcoma cells that overexpress P-gp (MES-SA/Dx5) using flow cytometry. The effect of compounds with highest MDR reversal activities was further evaluated by measuring the alterations of MES-SA/Dx5 cells’ sensitivity to doxorubicin (DXR) using MTT assay. The results of both biological assays indicated that compounds bearing 2-nitrophenyl at C 4 position and compounds with 4-chlorophenyl carboxamide at C 3 demonstrated the highest activities in resistant cells, while they were devoid of any effect in parental nonresistant MES-SA cells. One of the active derivatives, 5c, significantly increased intracellular Rh123 at 100 µM, and it also significantly reduced the IC 50 of DXR by 70.1% and 88.7% at 10 and 25 µM, respectively, in MES-SA/Dx5 cells. The toxicity of synthesized compounds against HEK293 as a noncancer cell line was also investigated. All tested derivatives except for 2c compound showed no cytotoxicity. A molecular dynamics simulation study was also performed to investigate the possible binding site of 5c in complex with human P-gp, which showed that this compound formed 11 average H-bonds with Ser909, Thr911, Arg547, Arg543 and Ser474 residues of P-gp. A good agreement was found between the results of the computational and experimental studies. The findings of this study show that some 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives could serve as promising candidates for the discovery of new agents for P-gp-mediated MDR reversal.

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          Most cited references 36

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          PLIP: fully automated protein–ligand interaction profiler

          The characterization of interactions in protein–ligand complexes is essential for research in structural bioinformatics, drug discovery and biology. However, comprehensive tools are not freely available to the research community. Here, we present the protein–ligand interaction profiler (PLIP), a novel web service for fully automated detection and visualization of relevant non-covalent protein–ligand contacts in 3D structures, freely available at projects.biotec.tu-dresden.de/plip-web . The input is either a Protein Data Bank structure, a protein or ligand name, or a custom protein–ligand complex (e.g. from docking). In contrast to other tools, the rule-based PLIP algorithm does not require any structure preparation. It returns a list of detected interactions on single atom level, covering seven interaction types (hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic contacts, pi-stacking, pi-cation interactions, salt bridges, water bridges and halogen bonds). PLIP stands out by offering publication-ready images, PyMOL session files to generate custom images and parsable result files to facilitate successive data processing. The full python source code is available for download on the website. PLIP's command-line mode allows for high-throughput interaction profiling.
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            A surface glycoprotein modulating drug permeability in Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants.

            Chinese hamster ovary cells selected for resistance to colchicine display pleiotropic cross-resistance to a wide range of amphiphilic drugs. The drug-resistant phenotype is due to a membrane alteration which reduces the rate of drug permeation. Surface labelling studies reveal that drug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell membranes possess a carbohydrate-containing component of 170 000 daltons apparent molecular weight which is not observed in wild type cells. Through studies of the metabolic incorporation of carbohydrate and protein precursors, and through the use of selective proteolysis, this component is shown to be a cell surface glycoprotein. Since this glycoprotein appears unique to mutant cells displaying altered drug permeability, we have designated it the P glycoprotein. The relative amount of surface labelled P glycoprotein correlates with the degree of drug resistance in a number of independent mutant and revertant clones. A similar high molecular weight glycoprotein is also present in drug-resistant mutants from another hamster cell line. Observations on the molecular basis of pleiotropic drug resistance are interpreted in terms of a model wherein certain surface glycoproteins control drug permeation by modulating the properties of hydrophobic membrane regions...
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              Tools for comparative protein structure modeling and analysis.

              The following resources for comparative protein structure modeling and analysis are described (http://salilab.org): MODELLER, a program for comparative modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints; MODWEB, a web server for automated comparative modeling that relies on PSI-BLAST, IMPALA and MODELLER; MODLOOP, a web server for automated loop modeling that relies on MODELLER; MOULDER, a CPU intensive protocol of MODWEB for building comparative models based on distant known structures; MODBASE, a comprehensive database of annotated comparative models for all sequences detectably related to a known structure; MODVIEW, a Netscape plugin for Linux that integrates viewing of multiple sequences and structures; and SNPWEB, a web server for structure-based prediction of the functional impact of a single amino acid substitution.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                14 February 2017
                : 11
                : 407-418
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center
                [2 ]Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “Vittorio Ersparmer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ramin Miri; Omidreza Firuzi, Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 71345-3388, Shiraz, Iran, Tel +98 713 230 7869, Fax +98 713 230 2225, Email ramin.miri.15@ 123456gmail.com ; foomid@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                dddt-11-407
                10.2147/DDDT.S119995
                5317256
                © 2017 Shahraki et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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