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      Short-term effects of video gaming on brain response during working memory performance

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Breaks filled with different break activities often interrupt cognitive performance in everyday life. Previous studies have reported that both enhancing and deteriorating effects on challenging ongoing tasks such as working memory updating, depend on the type of break activity. However, neural mechanisms of these break-related alterations in working memory performance have not been studied, to date. Therefore, we conducted a brain imaging study to identify the neurobiological correlates of effects on the n-back working memory task related to different break activities. Before performing the n-back task in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, young adults were exposed to break activities in the MRI scanner involving ( i) eyes-open resting, ( ii) listening to music, and ( iii) playing the video game “Angry Birds”. Heart rate was measured by a pulse oximeter during the experiment. We found that increased heart rate during gaming as well as decreased relaxation levels after a video gaming break was related to poorer n-back task performance, as compared to listening to music. On the neural level, video gaming reduced supplementary motor area activation during working memory performance. These results may indicate that video gaming during a break may affect working memory performance by interfering with arousal state and frontal cognitive control functions.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Estimating the Dimension of a Model

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            Working memory: looking back and looking forward.

             Alan Baddeley (2003)
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              The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease.

              The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) has developed brief, comprehensive, and reliable batteries of clinical and neuropsychological tests for assessment of patients with the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We administered these batteries in a standardized manner to more than 350 subjects with a diagnosis of AD and 275 control subjects who were enrolled in a nationwide registry by a consortium of 16 university medical centers. The tests selected for this study measured the primary cognitive manifestations of AD across a range of severity of the disorder, and discriminated between normal subjects and those with mild and moderate dementia. The batteries also detected deterioration of language, memory, praxis, and general intellectual status in subjects returning for reassessment 1 year later. Interrater and test-retest reliabilities were substantial. Long-term observations of this cohort are in progress in an effort to validate the clinical and neuropsychological assessments and to confirm the diagnosis by postmortem examinations. Although information on validation is limited thus far, the CERAD batteries appear to fill a need for a standardized, easily administered, and reliable instrument for evaluating persons with AD in multicenter research studies as well as in clinical practice.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                10 October 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité –Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Campus Charité Mitte), Berlin, Germany
                [2 ] Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [3 ] Excellence Cluster NeuroCure, Charité –Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [4 ] Department of Psychiatry (UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
                [5 ] Social and Preventive Medicine, Universität Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
                [6 ] Department of Education and Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                Georgia State University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-19-06332
                10.1371/journal.pone.0223666
                6786602
                31600305
                © 2019 Liu et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 13
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002860, China Sponsorship Council;
                Award ID: 201208080013
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100006211, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin;
                Award ID: Humboldt Postdoctoral Scholarship
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: FOR 1617
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: FOR 1617 - RA1047/2-2
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: FOR 1617 - 1971/1-2
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: SPP 1772 - RA1047/4-1
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: SPP 1772 - HE7464/1-1
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002347, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung;
                Award ID: 01EE1406A
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002347, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung;
                Award ID: 01EE1406I
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: SPP 1772 - RA1047/4-2
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: SPP 1772 - HE 7464/1-2
                Award Recipient :
                This research was supported by the China Scholarship Council (grant 201208080013 to SL), the Humboldt Postdoctoral Scholarship (grant to SL), the German Research Foundation (grant FOR 1617 to AH and subproject grant RA1047/2-2 to MAR and SCHA 1971/1-2 to DJS; grant SPP 1772, subproject grant RA1047/4-1 and RA1047/4-2 to MAR and HE7464/1-1 and HE7464/1-2 to SH), and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (grant 01EE1406A to AH and grant 01EE1406I to MAR). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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                We uploaded anonymized data sets of behavioral and fMRI data together with the scripts for data analyses to the open science framework. In order to allow replication of study findings, we also included the first level fMRI data (models of each individual participant). Data and scripts for analyses are uploaded to the publically accessible open science framework homepage: https://osf.io/ed8xm/.

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