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      Intestinal Ischemia as a Complication of COVID-19

      * ,
      Dubai Medical Journal
      S. Karger AG
      COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Mesenteric ischemia, Thrombosis, Endothelial activation

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          Extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 including acute mesenteric ischemia are being increasingly reported and are a reason of poorer clinical outcome and increased inpatient mortality rate.


          Here, we present a case of a young obese male who developed acute superior mesenteric artery thrombosis as a result of COVID-19.


          Some direct causes of mesenteric thrombosis in COVID-19 patients have been hypothesized. Furthermore, immobilization, endothelial injury, and increased prothrombotic factor production are proven causes of thromboembolism in COVID-19.


          Early detection and management of acute mesenteric ischemia in COVID-19 cases is crucial to improve the prognosis.

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          Most cited references10

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          Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia

          Abstract Background In the recent outbreak of novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China, significantly abnormal coagulation parameters in severe novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) cases were a concern. Objectives To describe the coagulation feature of patients with NCP. Methods Conventional coagulation results and outcomes of 183 consecutive patients with confirmed NCP in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results The overall mortality was 11.5%, the non‐survivors revealed significantly higher D‐dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels, longer prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time compared to survivors on admission (P < .05); 71.4% of non‐survivors and 0.6% survivors met the criteria of disseminated intravascular coagulation during their hospital stay. Conclusions The present study shows that abnormal coagulation results, especially markedly elevated D‐dimer and FDP are common in deaths with NCP.
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            Hypercoagulability of COVID‐19 patients in intensive care unit: A report of thromboelastography findings and other parameters of hemostasis

            Background The severe inflammatory state secondary to COVID‐19 leads to a severe derangement of hemostasis that has been recently described as a state of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and consumption coagulopathy, defined as decreased platelet count, increased fibrin(ogen) degradation products such as D‐dimer, as well as low fibrinogen. Aims Whole blood from 24 patients admitted at the intensive care unit because of COVID‐19 was collected and evaluated with thromboelastography by the TEG point‐of‐care device on a single occasion and six underwent repeated measurements on two consecutive days for a total of 30 observations. Plasma was evaluated for the other parameters of hemostasis. Results TEG parameters are consistent with a state of hypercoagulability as shown by decreased values, and increased values of K angle and MA. Platelet count was normal or increased, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were near(normal). Fibrinogen was increased and D‐dimer was dramatically increased. C‐reactive protein was increased. Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (n = 11) were increased. Antithrombin (n = 11) was marginally decreased and protein C (n = 11) was increased. Conclusion The results of this cohort of patients with COVID‐19 are not consistent with acute DIC, rather they support hypercoagulability together with a severe inflammatory state. These findings may explain the events of venous thromboembolism observed in some of these patients and support antithrombotic prophylaxis/treatment. Clinical trials are urgently needed to establish the type of drug, dosage, and optimal duration of prophylaxis.
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              Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms

              Objective The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics. Design COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type. Bioinformatics were used to analyse features of SARS-CoV-2 from Zhejiang province. Results Among enrolled 651 patients, 74 (11.4%) presented with at least one GI symptom (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea), average age of 46.14 years, 4-day incubation period and 10.8% had pre-existing liver disease. Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 17 (22.97%) and 23 (31.08%) had severe/critical types and family clustering, respectively, significantly higher than those without GI symptoms, 47 (8.14%) and 118 (20.45%). Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 29 (39.19%), 23 (31.08%), 8 (10.81%) and 16 (21.62%) had significantly higher rates of fever >38.5°C, fatigue, shortness of breath and headache, respectively. Low-dose glucocorticoids and antibiotics were administered to 14.86% and 41.89% of patients, respectively. Sputum production and increased lactate dehydrogenase/glucose levels were risk factors for severe/critical type. Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2. Conclusion We report COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms with novel features outside Wuhan. Attention to patients with COVID-19 with non-classic symptoms should increase to protect health providers.

                Author and article information

                Dubai Medical Journal
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                15 November 2021
                15 November 2021
                : 1-4
                General Surgery Department, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                Author notes
                Copyright © 2021 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 6 September 2021
                : 3 October 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 10, Pages: 4
                Educational Corner − Case Report

                covid-19,sars-cov-2,mesenteric ischemia,thrombosis,endothelial activation


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