Objective To analyze the current situation and characteristics of poor vision of students aged 7-18 in 26 ethnic minorities in China, and to provide scientific basis for the vision prevention and treatment measures for minority students.
Methods The 2014 national survey report on student physique and health was used to collect the data of 80 766 primary and secondary school students of poor vision selected from 26 ethnic minorities, The Chi-square test was used to compare and analyze the visual acuity of Han and Chinese students.
Results The rate of poor eyesight among primary and secondary school students of ethnic minorities was 39.17%. The girls were reported with higher rates of visual impairment than boys, and the difference was highly significant ( χ 2 = 1 127.28, P<0.01). High school girls (16–18 years old ) had the highest rate of visual impairment, reaching 63.13%. The rate of vision failure was the lowest among boys in the lower grades of primary school (7 to 12 years old), amounting to 20. 50%. The detection rate of poor vision in all ethnic groups ranged from 14.68% to 62.94%. Among them, the top five groups with the highest detection rate of poor vision were Tibetan (62.94%), Zhuang (62.39%), Korean (57.92%), Hui (56.48%) and Naxi (51.35%). The five lowest ethnic groups were the aquarium (14.68%), Wa (17.96%), Kyrgyz (18.30%), Li (19.22%) and Hhani (22.30%). The differences among most ethnic groups were highly significant ( χ 2 = 7 910.34, P<0.01).
Conclusion The vision level of 26 minority students in China is lower than that of the Han. But there are significant ethnic differences. While intervening in Tibet, Zhuang and other key ethnic students, we should pay attention to gender differences and strengthen the prevention and control of vision of students from all ethnic groups.
【摘要】目的了解中国26个少数民族7~18岁学生视力不良现状及特征，为少数民族学生制定具有针对性的视力 防控与治理措施提供依据。 方法使用2014年中国学生体质健康调研中26个少数民族的80 766名中小学生视力不良数 据，采用； χ 2检验进行组间比较。 结果少数民族中小学生视力不良率为39.17%，各学段女生视力不良率均髙于男生，性 别间差异有统计学意义 ( χ 2 = 1 127.28， P<0.01 )。髙中（16~ 18岁)女生视力不良率最髙，达63.13%；小学低年级 (7~9岁) 男生视力不良率最低，为20.50%。各民族视力不良检出率在14.68% ~62.94%之间，其中视力不良检出率最髙的前5个民 族分别为藏族 (62.94%)、壮族 (62.39%)、朝鲜族（57.92%)、回族（56.48%)、纳西族（51.35%)，最低的前5个民族为水族 (14.68%)、佤族（17.96)、柯尔克孜族（18.30%)、黎族（19.22%)、哈尼族（22.30%)，民族间差异有统计学意义（ χ 2= 7 910.34， P<0.01)。 结论中国26个少数民族中小学生视力水平民族间差异明显。在针对藏、壮等重点民族学生干预的 同时，应注重性别差异，加强全民族学生的视力防控与治理。