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      Decreased EDHF‐mediated relaxation is a major mechanism in endothelial dysfunction in resistance arteries in aged mice on prolonged high‐fat sucrose diet

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          High‐fat sucrose (HFS) diet in aged individuals causes severe weight gain (obesity) with much higher risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is a major contributor for these vascular disorders. We hypothesize that prolonged ingestion of HFS diet by aged mice would accentuate endothelial dysfunction in the small resistance arteries. Male C57BL/6J mice at 12 weeks of age were divided into four groups and fed either normal chow (NC) or high‐fat sucrose diet (HFS). Young group received NC for 4 months, and high‐fat diet (HFD) for 3 months and 1 month HFS + 10% Sucrose (HFS diet). Aged mice received NC for 12 months. Aged HFS group received HFD for 4 months + 1 month HFD + 10% sucrose + 8 months HFD. Total body weight, plasma blood glucose levels, and glucose tolerance were determined in all groups. Isolated mesenteric arteries were assessed for arterial remodeling, myogenic tone, and vasomotor responses using pressure and wire myography. Both young and aged HFS mice showed impaired glucose tolerance (Y‐NC, 137 ± 8.5 vs. Y‐NC HFS, 228 ± 11.71; A‐NC, 148 ± 6.42 vs. A‐HFS, 225 ± 10.99), as well as hypercholesterolemia (Y‐NC 99.50 ± 6.35 vs. Y‐HFS 220.40 ± 16.34 mg/dL; A‐NC 108.6 ± vs. A‐HFS 279 ± 21.64) and significant weight gain (Y‐NC 32.13 ± 0.8 g vs. Y‐HFS 47.87 ± 2.18 g; A‐NC 33.72 vs. A‐HFS 56.28 ± 3.47 g) compared to both groups of mice on NC. The mesenteric artery from mice with prolonged HFS diet resulted in outward hypertrophic remodeling, increased stiffness, reduced myogenic tone, impaired vasodilation, increased contractility and blunted nitric oxide (NO) and EDH‐mediated relaxations. Ebselen, a peroxinitrite scavenger rescued the endothelium derived relaxing factor (EDHF)‐mediated relaxations. Our findings suggest that prolonged diet‐induced obesity of aged mice can worsen small resistance artery endothelial dysfunction due to decrease in NO and EDHF‐mediated relaxation, but, EDHF‐mediated relaxation is a major contributor to overall endothelial dysfunction.

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          Differential effects of fat and sucrose on the development of obesity and diabetes in C57BL/6J and A/J mice.

          We have previously demonstrated that the C57BL/6J (B/6J) mouse will develop severe obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia if weaned onto a high-fat, high-sucrose (HH) diet. In the present study, we compared the effects of fat and sucrose separately and in combination on diabetes- and obesity-prone B/6J and diabetes- and obesity-resistant A/J mice. After 4 months, the feed efficiency ([FE] weight gained divided by calories consumed) did not differ across diets in A/J mice, but B/6J mice showed a significantly increased FE for fat. That is, B/6J mice gained more weight on high-fat diets without consuming more calories than A/J mice. The increase in FE was related to adipocyte hyperplasia in B/6J mice on high-fat diets. Fat-induced obesity in B/6J mice was unrelated to adrenal cortical activity. In the absence of fat, sucrose produced a decreased in FE in both strains. Animals fed a low-fat, high-sucrose (LH) diet were actually leaner than animals fed a high-complex-carbohydrate diet. Fat was also found to be the critical stimulus for hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in B/6J mice. In the absence of fat, sucrose had no effect on plasma glucose or insulin. These data clearly show that across these two strains of mice, genetic differences in the metabolic response to fat are more important in the development of obesity and diabetes than the increased caloric content of a high-fat diet.
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            Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men.

            To investigate the relation between obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain through adulthood and the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We analyzed data from a cohort of 51,529 U.S. male health professionals, 40-75 years of age in 1986, who completed biennial questionnaires sent out in 1986, 1988, 1990, and 1992. During 5 years of follow-up (1987-1992), 272 cases of NIDDM were diagnosed among men without a history of diabetes, heart disease, and cancer in 1986 and who provided complete health information. Relative risks (RRs) associated with different anthropometric measures were calculated controlling for age, and multivariate RRs were calculated controlling for smoking, family history of diabetes, and age. We found a strong positive association between overall obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) and risk of diabetes. Men with a BMI of > or = 35 kg/m2 had a multivariate RR of 42.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.0-80.6) compared with men with a BMI < 23.0 kg/m2. BMI at age 21 and absolute weight gain throughout adulthood were also significant independent risk factors for diabetes. Fat distribution, measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), was a good predictor of diabetes only among the top 5%, while waist circumference was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among the top 20% of the cohort. These data suggest that waist circumference may be a better indicator than WHR of the relationship between abdominal adiposity and risk of diabetes. Although early obesity, absolute weight gain throughout adulthood, and waist circumference were good predictors of diabetes, attained BMI was the dominant risk factor for NIDDM; even men of average relative weight had significantly elevated RRs.
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              Body fat distribution and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. The Nurses' Health Study.

              Obesity is an established risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Anthropometric measures of overall and central obesity as predictors of NIDDM risk have not been as well studied, especially in women. Among 43,581 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study who in 1986 provided waist, hip, and weight information and who were initially free from diabetes and other major chronic diseases, NIDDM incidence was followed from 1986 to 1994. After adjustment for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, exercise, and several dietary factors, the relative risk of NIDDM for the 90th percentile of body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2) (BMI = 29.9) versus the 10th percentile (BMI = 20.1) was 11.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.9-15.9). Controlling for BMI and other potentially confounding factors, the relative risk for the 90th percentile of waist: hip ratio (WHR) (WHR = 0.86) versus the 10th percentile (WHR = 0.70) was 3.1 (95% CI 2.3-4.1), and the relative risk for the 90th percentile of waist circumference (36.2 inches or 92 cm) versus the 10th percentile (26.2 inches or 67 cm) was 5.1 (95% CI 2.9-8.9). BMI, WHR, and waist circumference are powerful independent predictors of NIDDM in US women. Measurement of BMI and waist circumference (with or without hip circumference) are potentially useful tools for clinicians in counseling patients regarding NIDDM risk and risk reduction.

                Author and article information

                Physiol Rep
                Physiol Rep
                Physiological Reports
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                07 December 2017
                December 2017
                : 5
                : 23 ( doiID: 10.1002/phy2.2017.5.issue-23 )
                [ 1 ] Department of Pharmacology & Neuroscience Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Lubbock Texas
                [ 2 ] The Department of Translational & Vascular Biology University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Tyler Tyler Texas
                [ 3 ]Present address: Shannon Dunn 685 W. Baltimore Street, MSTF Room, 357‐B Baltimore Maryland
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Kumuda C. Das, The Department of Translational & Vascular Biology, The University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75708. Tel: 903‐877‐8122; Fax: 903‐877‐7558; E‐mail: kumuda.das2@

                © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, Pages: 14, Words: 9858
                Funded by: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institutes
                Award ID: HL 1R01HL107885
                Award ID: 3R01HL107885‐05S1
                Award ID: 1R01HL109397
                Ageing and Degeneration
                Adipose Tissue and Obesity
                Metabolism and Regulation
                Cardiovascular Conditions, Disorders and Treatments
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                December 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.2.8 mode:remove_FC converted:13.12.2017


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