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      A Systematic Summary of Systematic Reviews on the Topic of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament


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          There has been a substantial increase in the amount of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).


          To quantify the number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the ACL in the past decade and to provide an overall summary of this literature.

          Study Design:

          Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.


          A systematic review of all ACL-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 2004 and September 2014 was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database. Narrative reviews and non-English articles were excluded.


          A total of 1031 articles were found, of which 240 met the inclusion criteria. Included articles were summarized and divided into 17 topics: anatomy, epidemiology, prevention, associated injuries, diagnosis, operative versus nonoperative management, graft choice, surgical technique, fixation methods, computer-assisted surgery, platelet-rich plasma, rehabilitation, return to play, outcomes assessment, arthritis, complications, and miscellaneous.


          A summary of systematic reviews on the ACL can supply the surgeon with a single source for the most up-to-date synthesis of the literature.

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          Most cited references220

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          Return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the state of play.

          An athlete's intention to return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a major indication for surgical intervention. The purpose of this review was to determine postoperative return-to-sport outcomes after ACL reconstruction surgery. Meta-analysis and systematic review Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL were searched from the earliest possible entry to April 2010. Studies were included that reported the number of patients returning to sports participation following ACL reconstruction surgery. The results were presented using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework and combined using proportion meta-analyses. Forty-eight studies evaluating 5770 participants at a mean follow-up of 41.5 months were included for review. Overall, 82% of participants had returned to some kind of sports participation, 63% had returned to their preinjury level of participation, and 44% had returned to competitive sport at final follow-up. Approximately 90% of participants achieved normal or nearly normal knee function when assessed postoperatively using impairment-based outcomes such as laxity and strength, and 85% when using activity-based outcomes such as the International Knee Documentation Committee knee evaluation form. Fear of reinjury was the most common reason cited for a postoperative reduction in or cessation of sports participation. The relatively low rate of return to competitive sport despite the high rates of successful outcome in terms of knee impairment-based function suggests that other factors such as psychological factors may be contributing to return-to-sport outcomes.
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            A meta-analysis of the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears as a function of gender, sport, and a knee injury-reduction regimen.

            The literature has shown that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear rates vary by gender, by sport, and in response to injury-reduction training programs. However, there is no consensus as to the magnitudes of these tear rates or their variations as a function of these variables. For example, the female-male ACL tear ratio has been reported to be as high as 9:1. Our purpose was to apply meta-analysis to the entire applicable literature to generate accurate estimates of the true incidences of ACL tear as a function of gender, sport, and injury-reduction training. A PubMed literature search was done to identify all studies dealing with ACL tear incidence. Bibliographic cross-referencing was done to identify additional articles. Meta-analytic principles were applied to generate ACL incidences as a function of gender, sport, and prior injury-reduction training. Female-male ACL tear incidences ratios were as follows: basketball, 3.5; soccer, 2.67; lacrosse, 1.18; and Alpine skiing, 1.0. The collegiate soccer tear rate was 0.32 for female subjects and 0.12 for male subjects. For basketball, the rates were 0.29 and 0.08, respectively. The rate for recreational Alpine skiers was 0.63, and that for experts was 0.03, with no gender variance. The two volleyball studies had no ACL tears. Training reduced the ACL tear incidence in soccer by 0.24 but did not reduce it at all in basketball. Female subjects had a roughly 3 times greater incidence of ACL tears in soccer and basketball versus male subjects. Injury-reduction programs were effective for soccer but not basketball. Recreational Alpine skiers had the highest incidences of ACL tear, whereas expert Alpine skiers had the lowest incidences. Volleyball may in fact be a low-risk sport rather than a high-risk sport. Alpine skiers and lacrosse players had no gender difference for ACL tear rate. Year-round female athletes who play soccer and basketball have an ACL tear rate of approximately 5%. Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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              Knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review.

              This is a systematic review of studies on the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the tibiofemoral joint more than 10 years after an anterior cruciate ligament injury, the radiologic classification methods used, and risk factors for development of knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were studies involving patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury, either isolated or combined with medial collateral ligament or meniscal injury and either surgically or nonsurgically treated, and a minimum 10-year follow-up with radiologic assessment. Methodological quality was evaluated using a modified version of the Coleman methodology score. Seven prospective and 24 retrospective studies were included. The mean modified Coleman methodology score was 52 of 90. Reported prevalence of knee osteoarthritis for subjects with isolated anterior cruciate ligament injury was between 0% and 13%. For subjects with anterior cruciate ligament and additional meniscal injury, the prevalence varied between 21% and 48%. Seven different radiologic classification systems were used in the studies. Only 3 studies reported reliability results for the radiologic assessments. The most frequently reported risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis was meniscal injury. This systematic review suggests that the prevalence rates of knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction reported by previous reviews have been too high. The highest rated studies reported low prevalence of knee osteoarthritis for individuals with isolated anterior cruciate ligament injury (0%-13%) and a higher prevalence of knee osteoarthritis for subjects with combined injuries (21%-48%). Overall, the modified Coleman methodology score was low for the included studies. No universal methodological radiologic classification method exists, making comparisons of the studies and stating firm conclusions on the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis more than 10 years after anterior cruciate ligament injury difficult.

                Author and article information

                Orthop J Sports Med
                Orthop J Sports Med
                Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                15 March 2016
                March 2016
                : 4
                : 3
                [* ]The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.
                [2-2325967116634074] Investigation performed at The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA
                Author notes
                [*] []Leslie J. Bisson, MD, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA (email: ljbisson@ 123456buffalo.edu ).
                © The Author(s) 2016

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work as published without adaptation or alteration, without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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                anterior cruciate ligament,surgery,systematic review,meta-analysis


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