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      Tackling antibiotic resistance: the environmental framework.

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          Antibiotic resistance is a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and key measures are required to reduce the risks posed by antibiotic resistance genes that occur in the environment. These measures include the identification of critical points of control, the development of reliable surveillance and risk assessment procedures, and the implementation of technological solutions that can prevent environmental contamination with antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. In this Opinion article, we discuss the main knowledge gaps, the future research needs and the policy and management options that should be prioritized to tackle antibiotic resistance in the environment.

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          Author and article information

          Nat. Rev. Microbiol.
          Nature reviews. Microbiology
          May 2015
          : 13
          : 5
          [1 ] 1] Institute for Hydrobiology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden 01062, Germany. [2].
          [2 ] 1] Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina - Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, Porto 4202-401, Portugal. [2].
          [3 ] Université de Lorraine and le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l'Environnement, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7564, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54500, France.
          [4 ] Civil and Environmental Engineering Department and Nireas, International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus.
          [5 ] Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.
          [6 ] Department of Biology, Biosciences and Electronic Engineering Building, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland.
          [7 ] Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Surface Waters - Research and Management, Kastanienbaum (LU) 6047, Switzerland.
          [8 ] Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, PO Box 8146 Dep, Oslo N-0033, Norway.
          [9 ] Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Department of Epidemiology, Oslo N-0106, Norway.
          [10 ] Laboratoire Reactions et Génie des Procédés (UMR CNRS 7274), Université de Lorraine, Nancy 54000, France.
          [11 ] Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Karlsplatz 13/226, Vienna 1040, Austria.
          [12 ] Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520 Turku, Finland.
          [13 ] Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, Catania 95124, Italy.
          [14 ] Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Campus North, Institute of Functional Interfaces, Microbiology of Natural and Technical Interfaces Department, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany.
          [15 ] Institute of Technology, Tartu University, Nooruse 1, Tartu 50411, Estonia.
          [16 ] Ramón y Cajal Institute for Health Research, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, Department of Microbiology, Madrid 28034, Spain.
          [17 ] Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain.


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