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      Effect of Temperature on Heart Rate for Phaenicia sericata and Drosophila melanogaster with Altered Expression of the TrpA1 Receptors

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          Abstract

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          Thermal receptors detect temperature changes and can alter the activity of the cells. A subtype referred to as TrpA1 responds to increased temperature and increases expression in the heart of mammals when the heart is injured or is reduced in oxygen. It is not known if this is beneficial or detrimental to the heart. Thus, we examined the effect on heart activity of altering heart expression of TrpA1 in larval fruit flies at varied temperatures. Hearts of normal larvae stopped beating at 37 °C but hearts expressing high levels of TrpA1 stopped beating at 30 °C. In contrast, unmodified larvae of a blowfly species that grows at higher temperatures showed increased heart rate with increased temperature to 37 °C. It is not known if blowflies alter their expression of the thermal receptors. Thermal receptors can also be activated by physical stretch. Thus, it is possible an increase in expression in mammalian hearts within a narrow temperature range could be helpful in maintaining heart rate, as activation of TrpA1 receptors may be modulated by the stretching and relaxing of the heart itself. More research is needed in examining the function of TrpA1 receptors in mammalian hearts.

          Abstract

          The transient receptor potential (TrpA—ankyrin) receptor has been linked to pathological conditions in cardiac function in mammals. To better understand the function of the TrpA1 in regulation of the heart, a Drosophila melanogaster model was used to express TrpA1 in heart and body wall muscles. Heartbeat of in intact larvae as well as hearts in situ, devoid of hormonal and neural input, indicate that strong over-expression of TrpA1 in larvae at 30 or 37 °C stopped the heart from beating, but in a diastolic state. Cardiac function recovered upon cooling after short exposure to high temperature. Parental control larvae (UAS-TrpA1) increased heart rate transiently at 30 and 37 °C but slowed at 37 °C within 3 min for in-situ preparations, while in-vivo larvae maintained a constant heart rate. The in-situ preparations maintained an elevated rate at 30 °C. The heartbeat in the TrpA1-expressing strains could not be revived at 37 °C with serotonin. Thus, TrpA1 activation may have allowed enough Ca 2+ influx to activate K( Ca) channels into a form of diastolic stasis. TrpA1 activation in body wall muscle confirmed a depolarization of membrane. In contrast, blowfly Phaenicia sericata larvae increased heartbeat at 30 and 37 °C, demonstrating greater cardiac thermotolerance.

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          Most cited references 60

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          TRP channels as cellular sensors.

           D Clapham (2003)
          TRP channels are the vanguard of our sensory systems, responding to temperature, touch, pain, osmolarity, pheromones, taste and other stimuli. But their role is much broader than classical sensory transduction. They are an ancient sensory apparatus for the cell, not just the multicellular organism, and they have been adapted to respond to all manner of stimuli, from both within and outside the cell.
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            An introduction to TRP channels.

            The aim of this review is to provide a basic framework for understanding the function of mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, particularly as they have been elucidated in heterologous expression systems. Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane (6-TM) cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Selected functional properties of TRP channels from each subfamily are summarized in this review. Although a single defining characteristic of TRP channel function has not yet emerged, TRP channels may be generally described as calcium-permeable cation channels with polymodal activation properties. By integrating multiple concomitant stimuli and coupling their activity to downstream cellular signal amplification via calcium permeation and membrane depolarization, TRP channels appear well adapted to function in cellular sensation. Our review of recent literature implicating TRP channels in neuronal growth cone steering suggests that TRPs may function more widely in cellular guidance and chemotaxis. The TRP channel gene family and its nomenclature, the encoded proteins and alternatively spliced variants, and the rapidly expanding pharmacology of TRP channels are summarized in online supplemental material.
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              The evolution of thermal physiology in ectotherms

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                06 January 2021
                January 2021
                : 12
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA; Nicole.Marguerite@ 123456uky.edu (N.T.M.); jatebernard@ 123456gmail.com (J.B.); dough@ 123456uky.edu (D.A.H.)
                [2 ]520 Ruddles Mill Rd, Paris, KY 40361, USA; dharrisdvm@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: RLCOOP1@ 123456email.uky.edu
                Article
                insects-12-00038
                10.3390/insects12010038
                7825143
                33418937
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                trpa, drosophila, heart, temperature

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