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      Performance Assessment of Patient on Dialysis

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          Patients on dialysis are poorly active and show a low level of physical functioning. Questionnaires and objective measurements of spontaneous physical activity are available as well as complex-expensive or simple-unexpensive tests useful to assess the patient's exercise capacity. Performance assessment unravels patients' capabilities, enables a tailored exercise prescription and provides predictive information on main clinical outcomes and therefore this topic should be of interest for nephrologists. A routinary minimal pool of tests might be usefully performed in a dialysis centre to stratify the patient's risk and to recognize patients in need of exercise training in order to address them to community-based or rehabilitative programs.

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          Physical activity levels in patients on hemodialysis and healthy sedentary controls.

          Patients on dialysis have reduced exercise tolerance compared with age-matched sedentary controls. The reasons for this debility have not been fully elucidated, but physical inactivity could be a contributing factor. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether patients on hemodialysis are less active than healthy sedentary controls and to explore clinical correlates of physical activity level in a group of hemodialysis patients. Thirty-four hemodialysis patients and 80 healthy sedentary individuals participated in the study. Physical activity was measured for seven days with a three-dimensional accelerometer and with an activity questionnaire. Vector magnitude values from the accelerometer for the dialysis and control subjects were 104,718 +/- 9631 and 161,255 +/- 6792 arbitrary units per day, respectively (P < 0.0001, mean +/- SEM). The estimated energy expenditure values derived from the questionnaire were 33.6 +/- 0.5 kcal/kg/day and 36.2 +/- 0.5 kcal/kg/day (P = 0.002). The difference between patients on dialysis and controls increased with advancing age. Among the dialysis subjects, some measures of nutritional status correlated with physical activity level, including serum albumin concentration (r = 0.58, P = 0.003), serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.37, P = 0. 03), and phase angle derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (r = 0.40, P = 0.02). Patients on hemodialysis are less active than healthy sedentary controls, and this difference is more pronounced among older individuals. There is an association between the level of physical activity and nutritional status among patients on dialysis. These findings are of great concern, given the trend toward increasing age in incident dialysis patients and the well-known association between inactivity and increased mortality in the general population.
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            Physical exercise among participants in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS): correlates and associated outcomes.

            Levels of physical exercise among haemodialysis patients are low. Increased physical activity in this population has been associated with improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and survival. However, results of previous studies may not be applicable to the haemodialysis population as a whole. The present study provides the first description of international patterns of exercise frequency and its association with exercise programmes and clinical outcomes among participants in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Data from a cross section of 20,920 DOPPS participants in 12 countries between 1996 and 2004 were analysed. Regular exercise was defined as exercise frequency equal to or more than once/week based on patient self-report. Linear mixed models and logistic regression assessed associations of exercise frequency with HRQoL and other psychosocial variables. Mortality risk was calculated in Cox proportional hazard models using patient-level (patient self-reported exercise frequency) and facility-level (the dialysis facility percentage of regular exercisers) predictors. Regular exercise frequency varied widely across countries and across dialysis facilities within a country. Overall, 47.4% of participants were categorized as regular exercisers. The odds of regular exercise was 38% higher for patients from facilities offering exercise programmes (adjusted odds ratio = 1.38 [95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.84]; P = 0.03). Regular exercisers had higher HRQoL, physical functioning and sleep quality scores; reported fewer limitations in physical activities; and were less bothered by bodily pain or lack of appetite (P
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              Physical functioning and health-related quality-of-life changes with exercise training in hemodialysis patients.

              The Renal Exercise Demonstration Project was designed to test the effects of two different approaches to exercise programming on the levels of physical activity, physical functioning, and self-reported health status in hemodialysis patients. Two hundred eighty-six patients were recruited for participation. Intervention patients were given individually prescribed exercise for 8 weeks of independent home exercise, followed by 8 weeks of incenter cycling during dialysis. Physical performance testing was performed at baseline and after each intervention using gait speed, sit-to-stand test, and 6-minute walk. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item (SF-36) questionnaire was used to assess self-reported health status. The intervention group showed increased participation in physical activity. There were significant differences between the intervention and nonintervention groups in change over time in normal and fast gait speed, sit-to-stand test scores, and the physical scales on the SF-36, including the physical component scale. The intervention group improved in these test results, whereas the nonintervention group either did not change or declined over the duration of the study. It is clear that improvements in physical functioning result from exercise counseling and encouragement in hemodialysis patients. Because self-reported physical functioning is highly predictive of outcomes in hemodialysis patients, more attention to patients' levels of physical activity is warranted.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2014
                29 July 2014
                : 39
                : 2-3
                : 176-179
                aDepartment of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences - Section of Sport Sciences, University of Ferrara; bDepartment of Rehabilitation Medicine - Ferrara Universitary Hospital, Ferrara, Italy
                355794 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:176-179
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 4

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Exercise, Physical activity, Exercise tests, Dialysis


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