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      Genetic diversity of a canine coronavirus detected in pups with diarrhoea in Italy


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          The sequence of the S gene of a field canine coronavirus (CCoV), strain Elmo/02, revealed low nucleotide (61%) and amino acid (54%) identity to reference CCoV strains. The highest correlation (77% nt and 81.7% aa) was found with feline coronavirus type I. A PCR assay for the S gene of strain Elmo/02 detected analogous CCoVs of different geographic origin, all which exhibited at least 92–96% nucleotide identity to each other and to strain Elmo/02. The evident genetic divergence between the reference CCoV strains and the newly identified Elmo/02-like CCoVs strongly suggests that a novel genotype of CCoV is widespread in the dog population.

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          MEGA2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software.

          We have developed a new software package, Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 2 (MEGA2), for exploring and analyzing aligned DNA or protein sequences from an evolutionary perspective. MEGA2 vastly extends the capabilities of MEGA version 1 by: (1) facilitating analyses of large datasets; (2) enabling creation and analyses of groups of sequences; (3) enabling specification of domains and genes; (4) expanding the repertoire of statistical methods for molecular evolutionary studies; and (5) adding new modules for visual representation of input data and output results on the Microsoft Windows platform. http://www.megasoftware.net. s.kumar@asu.edu
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            Completion of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Coronavirus (PEDV) Genome Sequence

            The sequence of the replicase gene of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) has been determined. This completes the sequence of the entire genome of strain CV777, which was found to be 28,033 nucleotides (nt) in length (excluding the poly A-tail). A cloning strategy, which involves primers based on conserved regions in the predicted ORF1 products from other coronaviruses whose genome sequence has been determined, was used to amplify the equivalent, but as yet unknown, sequence of PEDV. Primary sequences derived from these products were used to design additional primers resulting in the amplification and sequencing of the entire ORF1 of PEDV. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed a small open reading frame (ORF) located near the 5′ end (no 99–137), and two large, slightly overlapping ORFs, ORF1a (nt 297–12650) and ORF1b (nt 12605–20641). The ORF1a and ORF1b sequences overlapped at a potential ribosomal frame shift site. The amino acid sequence analysis suggested the presence of several functional motifs within the putative ORF1 protein. By analogy to other coronavirus replicase gene products, three protease and one growth factor-like motif were seen in ORF1a, and one polymerase domain, one metal ion-binding domain, and one helicase motif could be assigned within ORF1b. Comparative amino acid sequence alignments revealed that PEDV is most closely related to human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and less related to murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). These results thus confirm and extend the findings from sequence analysis of the structural genes of PEDV.
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              Consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers for amplification of distantly related sequences.

              We describe a new primer design strategy for PCR amplification of unknown targets that are related to multiply-aligned protein sequences. Each primer consists of a short 3' degenerate core region and a longer 5' consensus clamp region. Only 3-4 highly conserved amino acid residues are necessary for design of the core, which is stabilized by the clamp during annealing to template molecules. During later rounds of amplification, the non-degenerate clamp permits stable annealing to product molecules. We demonstrate the practical utility of this hybrid primer method by detection of diverse reverse transcriptase-like genes in a human genome, and by detection of C5DNA methyltransferase homologs in various plant DNAs. In each case, amplified products were sufficiently pure to be cloned without gel fractionation. This COnsensus-DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primer (CODEHOP) strategy has been implemented as a computer program that is accessible over the World Wide Web (http://blocks.fhcrc.org/codehop.html) and is directly linked from the BlockMaker multiple sequence alignment site for hybrid primer prediction beginning with a set of related protein sequences.

                Author and article information

                J Virol Methods
                J. Virol. Methods
                Journal of Virological Methods
                Elsevier Science B.V.
                1 April 2003
                9 June 2003
                1 April 2003
                : 110
                : 1
                : 9-17
                [a ]Department of Animal Health and Well-being, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bari, S.p. per Casamassima km 3, 70010, Valenzano, Bari, Italy
                [b ]Department of Veterinary Public Health, Polo Universitario dell'Annunziata, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Messina, Messina, Italy
                [c ]Service of Medical Genetic, I.R.C.C.S. ‘Saverio de Bellis’, Castellana Grotte, Bari, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +39-80-4679833; fax: +39-80-4679843 a.pratelli@ 123456veterinaria.uniba.it
                Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 7 November 2002
                : 14 February 2003
                : 17 February 2003

                Microbiology & Virology
                Microbiology & Virology
                coronavirus, dog, genotype, diversity


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