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      Magnetofection Potentiates Gene Delivery to Cultured Endothelial Cells


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          Modification of cellular functions by overexpression of genes is increasingly practised for research of signalling pathways, but restricted by limitations of low efficiency. We investigated whether the novel technique of magnetofection (MF) could enhance gene transfer to cultured primary endothelial cells. MF of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) increased transfection efficiency of a luciferase reporter gene up to 360-fold compared to various conventional transfection systems. In contrast, there was only an up to 1.6-fold increase in toxicity caused by MF suggesting that the advantages of MF outbalanced the increase in toxicity. MF efficiently increased transfection efficiency using several commercially available cationic lipid transfection reagents and polyethyleneimine (PEI). Using PEI, even confluent HUVEC could be efficiently transfected to express luciferase activity. Using a green fluorescent protein vector maximum percentages of transfected cells amounted up to 38.7% while PEI without MF resulted in only 1.3% transfected cells. Likewise, in porcine aortic endothelial cells MF increased expression of a luciferase or a β-galactosidase reporter, reaching an efficiency of 37.5% of cells. MF is an effective tool for pDNA transfection of endothelial cells allowing high efficiencies. It may be of great use for investigating protein function in cell culture experiments.

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          Most cited references14

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          Magnetofection: enhancing and targeting gene delivery by magnetic force in vitro and in vivo.

          Low efficiencies of nonviral gene vectors, the receptor-dependent host tropism of adenoviral or low titers of retroviral vectors limit their utility in gene therapy. To overcome these deficiencies, we associated gene vectors with superparamagnetic nanoparticles and targeted gene delivery by application of a magnetic field. This potentiated the efficacy of any vector up to several hundred-fold, allowed reduction of the duration of gene delivery to minutes, extended the host tropism of adenoviral vectors to nonpermissive cells and compensated for low retroviral titer. More importantly, the high transduction efficiency observed in vitro was reproduced in vivo with magnetic field-guided local transfection in the gastrointestinal tract and in blood vessels. Magnetofection provides a novel tool for high throughput gene screening in vitro and can help to overcome fundamental limitations to gene therapy in vivo.
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            Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound.

            Although viral vector systems are efficient to transfect foreign genes into blood vessels, safety issues remain in relation to human gene therapy. In this study, we examined the feasibility of a novel nonviral vector system by using high-frequency, low-intensity ultrasound irradiation for transfection into blood vessels. Luciferase plasmid mixed with or without echo contrast microbubble (Optison) was transfected into cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and endothelial cells (EC) with the use of ultrasound. Interestingly, luciferase activity was markedly increased in both cell types treated with Optison. We then transfected luciferase plasmid mixed with Optison by means of therapeutic ultrasound into rat artery. Two days after transfection, luciferase activity was significantly higher in carotid artery transfected with luciferase gene with Optison and ultrasound than with plasmid alone. In addition, we transfected an anti-oncogene (p53) plasmid into carotid artery after balloon injury as a model of gene therapy for restenosis. Two weeks after transfection, the intimal-to-medial area ratio in rats transfected with wild-type p53 plasmid complexed with Optison by means of ultrasound was significantly decreased as compared with control, accompanied by a significant increase in p53 protein. No apparent toxicity such as inflammation could be detected in blood vessels transfected with plasmid DNA with ultrasound and Optison. Overall, we demonstrated that an ultrasound transfection method with Optison enhanced transfection efficiency of naked plasmid DNA into blood vessels without any apparent toxicity. Transfection of p53 plasmid with the use of this method should be useful for safe clinical gene therapy without a viral vector system.
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              Magnetofection--a highly efficient tool for antisense oligonucleotide delivery in vitro and in vivo.

              Delivery of antisense oligodesoxynucleotides (ODN) into primary cells is a specific strategy for research with therapeutic perspectives but transfection-associated difficulties. We established the technique of magnetofection to enhance ODN delivery at low toxicity and procedure time in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, target knockout was assessed at protein and mRNA levels and by measuring superoxide generation after antisense magnetofection against the p22(phox) subunit of endothelial NAD(P)H-oxidase. Under magnetic field guidance, low-dose magnetic particle-bound ODN were transfected to 84% human umbilical vein endothelial cells within 15 min followed by nuclear accumulation within 2 h, which required 24 h using standard methods. Antisense magnetofection against p22(phox) significantly decreased basal and prevented stimulated superoxide release due to loss of NAD(P)H-oxidase activity by mRNA knockout as assessed after 24 h. Knockout of endothelial phosphatase SHP-1 and connexin 37 proteins confirmed the method's efficiency. Transfection-associated toxicity was minimal. Twenty-four hours after injection of fluorescence-labeled ODN into femoral arteries of male mice, there was specific ODN uptake only into cremaster vessels exposed to magnetic fields during injection. Magnetofection is an ideal tool for delivery of functionally active ODN to difficult-to-transfect cells to study gene/protein function and a promising strategy for targeted ODN delivery in vivo.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                October 2003
                03 October 2003
                : 40
                : 5
                : 425-434
                aInstitute of Physiology and bCardiology Division, Medizinische Poliklinik – Innenstadt, Ludwig Maximilian University and cDepartment of Experimental Oncology, Technical University, Munich, Germany
                73901 J Vasc Res 2003;40:425–434
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 21, Pages: 10
                Research Paper

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Endothelial cells,Plasmid vectors,Magnetofection


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