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      Cold‐induced cutaneous vasoconstriction in humans: Function, dysfunction and the distinctly counterproductive

      1 , 2 , 1 , 1
      Experimental Physiology
      Wiley

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          The human cutaneous circulation as a model of generalized microvascular function.

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            Rho kinases in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology.

            Rho kinases (ROCKs) are the first and the best-characterized effectors of the small G-protein RhoA. In addition to their effect on actin organization, or through this effect, ROCKs have been found to regulate a wide range of fundamental cell functions such as contraction, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Abnormal activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been observed in major cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. This review, based on recent molecular, cellular, and animal studies, focuses on the current understanding of ROCK signaling and its roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology.
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              Cutaneous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor mechanisms in temperature regulation.

              In this review, we focus on significant developments in our understanding of the mechanisms that control the cutaneous vasculature in humans, with emphasis on the literature of the last half-century. To provide a background for subsequent sections, we review methods of measurement and techniques of importance in elucidating control mechanisms for studying skin blood flow. In addition, the anatomy of the skin relevant to its thermoregulatory function is outlined. The mechanisms by which sympathetic nerves mediate cutaneous active vasodilation during whole body heating and cutaneous vasoconstriction during whole body cooling are reviewed, including discussions of mechanisms involving cotransmission, NO, and other effectors. Current concepts for the mechanisms that effect local cutaneous vascular responses to local skin warming and cooling are examined, including the roles of temperature sensitive afferent neurons as well as NO and other mediators. Factors that can modulate control mechanisms of the cutaneous vasculature, such as gender, aging, and clinical conditions, are discussed, as are nonthermoregulatory reflex modifiers of thermoregulatory cutaneous vascular responses. © 2014 American Physiological Society.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Experimental Physiology
                Exp Physiol
                Wiley
                0958-0670
                1469-445X
                May 30 2019
                August 2019
                May 16 2019
                August 2019
                : 104
                : 8
                : 1202-1214
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Thermal & Mountain Medicine DivisionUS Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine Natick MA USA
                [2 ]Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education Belcamp MD USA
                Article
                10.1113/EP087718
                31045297
                13d2883c-f5e3-4677-acbb-a1df7bfa2eb9
                © 2019

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#am

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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