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      Relative Importance of Residual Renal Function and Convection in Determining Beta-2-Microglobulin Levels in High-Flux Haemodialysis and On-Line Haemodiafiltration

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          Abstract

          Convective blood purification improves beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M) removal and may delay the onset of dialysis-related amyloidosis. We assessed the differential effects of high-flux haemodialysis (HD) and on-line haemodiafiltration (HDF) on plasma beta(2)M levels, given the enhanced convective capability of HDF. We measured pre-dialysis beta(2)M levels in 297 patients in a programme employing both high-flux HD and HDF, then analysed the relationship of beta(2)M to modality and other variables. Independent determinants of plasma beta(2)M levels were residual renal function, age, HD vintage, and C-reactive protein load, but not the patient's predominant modality (high-flux HD or HDF). Patients with KRU levels <0.5 ml/min had significantly higher beta(2)M levels than patients with KRU between 0.5 and 1 ml/min. Residual renal function is of overriding importance as a determinant of beta(2)M levels in HD patients and may supersede enhanced convective clearance by HDF. Beneficial effects extend to very low levels of residual renal function. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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          Most cited references 16

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          A new form of amyloid protein associated with chronic hemodialysis was identified as β2-microglobulin

           F Gejyo,  T Yamada,  S Odani (1985)
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            Change from three times a week on-line hemodiafiltration to short daily on-line hemodiafiltration.

            Daily dialysis has shown excellent clinical results because a higher frequency of dialysis is more physiologic. On-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) is a HDF technique that combines diffusion with high convection in which the dialysis fluid itself is used as a reinfusion solution. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the more effective dialysis schedule (daily dialysis) with the dialysis modality that offers the highest uremic toxin removal (on-line HDF). Eight patients, six males and two females, on standard 4 to 5 hours three times a week OL-HDF (S-OL-HDF) were switched to daily OL-HDF (D-OL-HDF) 2 to 21/2 hours six times per week. Dialysis parameters were identical during both periods and only frequency and dialysis time of each session were changed. Tolerance, uremic toxin removal, urea kinetics, biochemical and anemia profiles, blood pressure, and left ventricular hypertrophy were evaluated. D-OL-HDF was well accepted and tolerated. The disappearance of postdialysis fatigue was rapidly reported by patients. Patients mantained the same [time average concentration (TAC) and weekly single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V)] throughout the study. However, equivalent renal urea clearance (EKR), standard Kt/V and weekly urea reduction ratio (URR) were increased during D-OL-HDF. Weekly urea, creatinine, osteocalcin, beta2-microglobulin, myoglobin, and prolactin reduction ratios were improved with D-OL-HDF. There was a significant decrease in predialysis plasma levels of urea, creatinine, acid uric, beta2-microglobulin and homocysteine over 6 months. Phosphate binders were reduced and antihypertensive drugs were stopped. A 30% regression of left ventricular mass was observed. The change from S-OL-HDF to D-OL-HDF was well tolerated. Disappearance of postdialysis fatigue, better dialysis adequacy, a higher removal of middle and large molecules, a reduction of phosphate binders, improvement of status nutritional, and an important reduction of cardiovascular risk factors were observed.
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              Identical decline of residual renal function in high-flux biocompatible hemodialysis and CAPD.

              Patients on conventional hemodialysis lose residual renal function more rapidly than patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The effect of dialysis using synthetic membranes and ultrapure water is less clear. The decline of urea clearance was compared in a cohort of 475 incident end-stage renal failure patients who received treatment with CAPD (N=175) or hemodialysis (HD) utilizing high-flux polysulphone membranes, ultrapure water, and bicarbonate as the buffer (N=300). CAPD patients were significantly younger, fitter (lower comorbidity severity score), less dependent (higher Karnofsky performance score) and less likely to have presented late than HD patients. There was no difference in the mean urea clearance in each group at dialysis initiation, or at any 6-month time point during the ensuing 48 months. This was true even after exclusion of patients who had died in the first year after initiation, those transferred to another dialysis modality, or those who had been transplanted. Only age and chronic interstitial disease predicted retention of urea clearance at one year. The rate of decline of urea clearance was similar in pre- and post-dialysis initiation phases, though there may have been a step-decline of about 2 mL/min at initiation, which requires further investigation. In hemodialysis using high-flux biocompatible membranes and ultrapure water, residual renal function declines at a rate indistinguishable from that in CAPD. This may have important implications, since preservation of residual renal function has major benefits and is a valid therapeutic goal.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2007
                July 2007
                02 July 2007
                : 25
                : 3
                : 295-302
                Affiliations
                Renal Unit, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK
                Article
                104870 Blood Purif 2007;25:295–302
                10.1159/000104870
                17622712
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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