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      Tandem Duplication and Random Loss for mitogenome rearrangement in Symphurus (Teleost: Pleuronectiformes)

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          The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) exhibit highly diversified types of large-scale gene rearrangements. We have reported that the mitogenomes of Crossorhombus azureus (Bothidae), Samariscus latus (Samaridae) and Cynoglossus fishes (Cynoglossidae) show different types of gene rearrangements.


          In the present study, the complete mitogenomes of two Symphurus species (Cynoglossidae), Symphurus plagiusa and Symphurus orientalis, were determined. The gene order in the S. plagiusa mitogenome is the same as that of a typical vertebrate (without any gene rearrangements). Surprisingly, large-scale gene rearrangements have occurred in S. orientalis. In the rearranged fragment from the control region (CR) to the WANCY tRNA cluster (tRNA cluster of tRNA-W, tRNA-A, tRNA-N, tRNA-C and tRNA-Y) in the S. orientalis mitogenome, tRNA-V and tRNA-M have been translocated to the 3’ end of the 16S rRNA gene, with six large intergenic spacers over 20 bp in length. In addition, an origin for light-strand replication (O L) structure that is typically located in the WANCY region was absent in both the S. plagiusa and S. orientalis mitogenomes. It is generally recognized that a sequence in the WANCY region that encodes tRNAs forms a hairpin structure (O L-like structure) and can act as the O L when the typical locus is lost. Moreover, an additional O L-like structure was identified near the control region in the S. plagiusa mitogenome.


          The positions of the intergenic spacers and the rearranged genes of the S. orientalis mitogenome strongly indicate that the mechanism underlying the rearrangement of this mitogenome was Tandem Duplication and Random Loss. Additionally, two O L-like regions substituting for the typical locus were found in the S. plagiusa mitogenome. We speculate that the ancestral mitogenomes of S. plagiusa and S. orientalis also had this characteristic, such that if both O L-like structures functioned during mitochondrial replication, they could initiate duplicate replications of the light strand (L-strand), leading to duplication of the region between the two structures. We consider that this mechanism may account for the gene duplication that occurred during the gene rearrangement process in the evolution of the ancestral mitogenome to the S. orientalis mitogenome.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1581-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 43

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          tRNAscan-SE: a program for improved detection of transfer RNA genes in genomic sequence.

          We describe a program, tRNAscan-SE, which identifies 99-100% of transfer RNA genes in DNA sequence while giving less than one false positive per 15 gigabases. Two previously described tRNA detection programs are used as fast, first-pass prefilters to identify candidate tRNAs, which are then analyzed by a highly selective tRNA covariance model. This work represents a practical application of RNA covariance models, which are general, probabilistic secondary structure profiles based on stochastic context-free grammars. tRNAscan-SE searches at approximately 30 000 bp/s. Additional extensions to tRNAscan-SE detect unusual tRNA homologues such as selenocysteine tRNAs, tRNA-derived repetitive elements and tRNA pseudogenes.
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            Animal mitochondrial genomes.

             Jeffrey Boore (1999)
            Animal mitochondrial DNA is a small, extrachromosomal genome, typically approximately 16 kb in size. With few exceptions, all animal mitochondrial genomes contain the same 37 genes: two for rRNAs, 13 for proteins and 22 for tRNAs. The products of these genes, along with RNAs and proteins imported from the cytoplasm, endow mitochondria with their own systems for DNA replication, transcription, mRNA processing and translation of proteins. The study of these genomes as they function in mitochondrial systems-'mitochondrial genomics'-serves as a model for genome evolution. Furthermore, the comparison of animal mitochondrial gene arrangements has become a very powerful means for inferring ancient evolutionary relationships, since rearrangements appear to be unique, generally rare events that are unlikely to arise independently in separate evolutionary lineages. Complete mitochondrial gene arrangements have been published for 58 chordate species and 29 non-chordate species, and partial arrangements for hundreds of other taxa. This review compares and summarizes these gene arrangements and points out some of the questions that may be addressed by comparing mitochondrial systems.
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              Positional effect of single bulge nucleotide on PNA(peptide nucleic acid)/DNA hybrid stability


                Author and article information

                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central (London )
                6 May 2015
                6 May 2015
                : 16
                : 1
                CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou, 510301 PR China
                © Shi et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2015


                mitochondrial replication, flatfish, mitogenome, gene rearrangement, ol-like structure


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