To assess the regression of cardiac hypertrophy during long-term (12 years) antihypertensive treatment, the following parameters were determined in 93 patients with essential hypertension: SV<sub>1</sub> + RV<sub>5</sub> by electrocardiography (ECG), and septal wall (SW) and posterior wall (PW) thickness by echocardiography (UCG). The patients were treated with a thiazide diuretic alone (group 1), thiazide + beta-blocker (group 2), thiazide + methyldopa or nifedipine (group 3) or nifedipine or methyldopa alone (group 4). The blood pressure decreased gradually within 6 months of treatment. According to ECG, regression of left ventricular hypertrophy occurred during the initial 7 years in all groups, whereas in the subsequent 5 years, statistically significant regression was found only in the patients treated with thiazide + other drugs (group 3). By UCG, which was taken only at the 7th and 12th year, regression was detectable during the last 5 years in all groups. The apparent incidence of regression of hypertrophy was lower in the thiazide-alone group (group 1) than in the thiazide + beta-blocker group (group 2), most likely due to mild hypertension in group 1. A cardiovascular accident (nonfatal myocardial infarction) occurred only in 1 patient. We conclude that during long-term antihypertensive treatment, persistent, progressive reversal of cardiac hypertrophy takes place.