The fauna and flora of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest have been intensively inventoried since the 19th century, but some components of this rich biota are still poorly known, and some areas have been poorly sampled. Recent studies on a rich collection of mountain catfishes of the genus Cambeva have revealed a high diversity of species still undescribed in the region. Here we provide formal descriptions for two of these species, found in areas inserted in a broad gap of the presently known genus distribution. The first one is endemic to small coastal river basins of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil; it is tentatively placed in an intrageneric clade, also including C. castroi, C. davisi, C. guareiensis and C. zonata, by all sharing the presence of a flat small process on the dorsal margin of the quadrate, laterally overlapping metapterygoid and situated just posterior to the syncondrial joint between the metapterygoid and the quadrate. Phylogenetic relationships of the second new species, endemic to the Rio Itajaí-Mirim basin, are still obscure, but it shares a derived morphology of the mesethmoid with some species of the C. balios group. Although species of Cambeva have little external morphological variation when compared to other trichomycterine groups, the present study once more shows the importance of recording and using osteological characters to diagnose externally similar trichomycterine species.