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Attenuation of Inflammatory Mediators (TNF-α and Nitric Oxide) and Up-Regulation of IL-10 by Wild and Domesticated Basidiocarps of Amauroderma rugosum (Blume & T. Nees) Torrend in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

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      Amauroderma rugosum, commonly known as “Jiǎzī” in China, is a wild mushroom traditionally used by the Chinese to reduce inflammation, to treat diuretic and upset stomach, and to prevent cancer. It is also used by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent epileptic episodes and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to compare the wild and domesticated basidiocarps of A. rugosum for antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The wild basidiocarps of A. rugosum were collected from the Belum Forest, Perak, Malaysia and the domesticated basidiocarps of A. rugosum were cultivated in the mushroom house located in the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Both the wild and domesticated basidiocarps were subjected to ethanolic extraction and the extracts were tested for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the crude ethanolic extract of wild (WB) and domesticated (DB) basidiocarps of A. rugosum had comparable total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. However, WB (EC 50 = 222.90 μg/mL) displayed a better ABTS cation radical scavenging activity than DB (EC 50 = 469.60 μg/mL). Both WB and DB were able to scavenge nitric oxide (NO) radical and suppress the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and this effect was mediated through the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene. In addition, both WB and DB caused down-regulation of the inflammatory gene TNF-α and the up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory gene IL-10. There was no inhibitory effect of WB and DB on nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In conclusion, the wild and domesticated basidiocarps of A. rugosum possessed antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. WB and DB inhibited downstream inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and NO) and induced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production. No inhibitory effects shown on upstream nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. WB and DB exhibited antioxidant activity and attenuation of proinflammatory mediators and therefore, A. rugosum may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the management of inflammation.

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            Author and article information

            [1 ]Mushroom Research Centre, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            [2 ]Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            [3 ]Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            University of Kentucky, UNITED STATES
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Conceived and designed the experiments: PMC YST KHC VS URK. Performed the experiments: PMC. Analyzed the data: PMC URK KHC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: URK VS YST. Wrote the paper: PMC URK VS.

            Role: Editor
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1 October 2015
            : 10
            : 10
            26427053 4591274 10.1371/journal.pone.0139593 PONE-D-15-31901

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

            Figures: 12, Tables: 4, Pages: 21
            This work was funded by University of Malaya for Postgraduate Research Grant (PG071-2012B) [], University of Malaya Research Grant RP005B-13AFR [] and University of Malaya High Impact Research MoE Grant UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/ASH/01 (UM.0000106/HIR.C3) [] and UM-MOHE UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/SC/02 (HIR F00002-21001) [] from the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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