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      Aldehyde-Functionalized Magnetic Particles to Capture Off-Target Chemotherapeutic Agents

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      ACS Omega

      American Chemical Society

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          Abstract

          Drug capture is a promising technique to prevent off-target chemotherapeutic agents from reaching systemic circulation and causing severe side effects. The current work examines the viability of using immobilized aldehydes for drug-capture applications via Schiff base formation between doxorubicin (DOX) and aldehydes. Commercially available pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (VB6) was immobilized on iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to capture DOX from human serum. Leaching of VB6 persisted as a primary issue and thus various aldehydes with anchoring groups such as catechol, silatrane, and phosphonate esters have been studied. The phosphonate group-based anchor was the most stable and used for further capture studies. To improve the hydrophilic nature of the aldehydes, sulfonate-containing aldehydes and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) were investigated. Finally, the optimized functionalized iron oxide particles, PEGylated-IONP, were used to demonstrate doxorubicin capture from human serum at biologically relevant temperature (37 °C), time (30 min), and concentrations (μM). The current study sets the stage for the development of potential compact dimension capture device based on surface-anchorable polymers with aldehyde groups.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

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            PEGylation as a strategy for improving nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery.

            Coating the surface of nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG), or "PEGylation", is a commonly used approach for improving the efficiency of drug and gene delivery to target cells and tissues. Building from the success of PEGylating proteins to improve systemic circulation time and decrease immunogenicity, the impact of PEG coatings on the fate of systemically administered nanoparticle formulations has, and continues to be, widely studied. PEG coatings on nanoparticles shield the surface from aggregation, opsonization, and phagocytosis, prolonging systemic circulation time. Here, we briefly describe the history of the development of PEGylated nanoparticle formulations for systemic administration, including how factors such as PEG molecular weight, PEG surface density, nanoparticle core properties, and repeated administration impact circulation time. A less frequently discussed topic, we then describe how PEG coatings on nanoparticles have also been utilized for overcoming various biological barriers to efficient drug and gene delivery associated with other modes of administration, ranging from gastrointestinal to ocular. Finally, we describe both methods for PEGylating nanoparticles and methods for characterizing PEG surface density, a key factor in the effectiveness of the PEG surface coating for improving drug and gene delivery.
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              Resection and liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

              Surveillance programs in cirrhotic patients enable the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at early stages, when the tumor is amenable to curative treatments (60% of cases in Japan; 25 to 40% in Europe and the United States). Resection is the mainstay of treatment in noncirrhotic patients and in cirrhotics with well-preserved liver function. In modern series, a perioperative mortality < or = 3% and 5-year survival rates above 50% are expected. Tumor recurrence complicates half of the cases at 3 years, but there is no unquestionable preventive treatment. Liver transplantation provides excellent outcomes applying the Milan criteria (single nodule < or = 5 cm or two or three nodules < or = 3 cm), with 5-year survival rates of 70% and low recurrence rates. Although expansion of selection criteria is appealing, it should be assessed in the setting of prospective well-designed studies. Intention-to-treat analysis has shown that wide extended indications lead to 25% 5-year survival rates. Living donor liver transplantation is having a minor impact in HCC management. Molecular markers are needed to better select the candidates for surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ACS Omega
                ACS Omega
                ao
                acsodf
                ACS Omega
                American Chemical Society
                2470-1343
                03 November 2020
                17 November 2020
                : 5
                : 45
                : 29121-29126
                Affiliations
                Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, California 91125, United States
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1021/acsomega.0c03840
                7675571
                © 2020 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

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