Drug capture is a promising technique to prevent off-target chemotherapeutic agents from reaching systemic circulation and causing severe side effects. The current work examines the viability of using immobilized aldehydes for drug-capture applications via Schiff base formation between doxorubicin (DOX) and aldehydes. Commercially available pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (VB6) was immobilized on iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to capture DOX from human serum. Leaching of VB6 persisted as a primary issue and thus various aldehydes with anchoring groups such as catechol, silatrane, and phosphonate esters have been studied. The phosphonate group-based anchor was the most stable and used for further capture studies. To improve the hydrophilic nature of the aldehydes, sulfonate-containing aldehydes and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) were investigated. Finally, the optimized functionalized iron oxide particles, PEGylated-IONP, were used to demonstrate doxorubicin capture from human serum at biologically relevant temperature (37 °C), time (30 min), and concentrations (μM). The current study sets the stage for the development of potential compact dimension capture device based on surface-anchorable polymers with aldehyde groups.