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      A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells

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          Abstract

          Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ∼16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization.

          Abstract

          Perovskite solar cells exhibit large conversion efficiencies, but their stability still represents a bottleneck. Here, the authors integrate a hygroscopic polymer scaffold to the perovskite active layer and fabricate efficient and stable devices that recover after being exposed to a humid environment.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Solar cells. Impact of microstructure on local carrier lifetime in perovskite solar cells.

          The remarkable performance of hybrid perovskite photovoltaics is attributed to their long carrier lifetimes and high photoluminescence (PL) efficiencies. High-quality films are associated with slower PL decays, and it has been claimed that grain boundaries have a negligible impact on performance. We used confocal fluorescence microscopy correlated with scanning electron microscopy to spatially resolve the PL decay dynamics from films of nonstoichiometric organic-inorganic perovskites, CH3NH3PbI3(Cl). The PL intensities and lifetimes varied between different grains in the same film, even for films that exhibited long bulk lifetimes. The grain boundaries were dimmer and exhibited faster nonradiative decay. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a positive correlation between chlorine concentration and regions of brighter PL, whereas PL imaging revealed that chemical treatment with pyridine could activate previously dark grains. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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            Highly Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells with Average Efficiency of 18.3% and Best Efficiency of 19.7% Fabricated via Lewis Base Adduct of Lead(II) Iodide.

            High efficiency perovskite solar cells were fabricated reproducibly via Lewis base adduct of lead(II) iodide. PbI2 was dissolved in N,N-dimethyformamide with equimolar N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and CH3NH3I. Stretching vibration of S═O appeared at 1045 cm(-1) for bare DMSO, which was shifted to 1020 and 1015 cm(-1) upon reacting DMSO with PbI2 and PbI2 + CH3NH3I, respectively, indicative of forming the adduct of PbI2·DMSO and CH3NH3I·PbI2·DMSO due to interaction between Lewis base DMSO and/or iodide (I(-)) and Lewis acid PbI2. Spin-coating of a DMF solution containing PbI2, CH3NH3I, and DMSO (1:1:1 mol %) formed a transparent adduct film, which was converted to a dark brown film upon heating at low temperature of 65 °C for 1 min due to removal of the volatile DMSO from the adduct. The adduct-induced CH3NH3PbI3 exhibited high charge extraction characteristics with hole mobility as high as 3.9 × 10(-3) cm(2)/(V s) and slow recombination rate. Average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.3% was achieved from 41 cells and the best PCE of 19.7% was attained via adduct approach.
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              Improved performance and stability of perovskite solar cells by crystal crosslinking with alkylphosphonic acid ω-ammonium chlorides.

              In the past few years, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have rapidly emerged as promising materials for photovoltaic applications, but simultaneously achieving high performance and long-term stability has proved challenging. Here, we show a one-step solution-processing strategy using phosphonic acid ammonium additives that results in efficient perovskite solar cells with enhanced stability. We modify the surface of methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite by spin-coating its precursor solution in the presence of butylphosphonic acid 4-ammonium chloride. Morphological, structural and elemental analyses show that the phosphonic acid ammonium additive acts as a crosslink between neighbouring grains in the perovskite structure, through strong hydrogen bonding of the -PO(OH)2 and -NH3(+) terminal groups to the perovskite surface. The additives facilitate the incorporation of the perovskite within a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold, as well as the growth of a uniform perovskite layer at the surface, enhancing the material's photovoltaic performance from 8.8 to 16.7% as well as its resistance to moisture.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group
                2041-1723
                06 January 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University , Beijing, 100871, China
                [2 ]Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter , Beijing, 100084, China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contribute equally to this work.

                Article
                ncomms10228
                10.1038/ncomms10228
                4729821
                26732479
                Copyright © 2016, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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