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      Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users.

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          Abstract

          Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) preparations have been traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal properties. Lately, Kratom use has spread to Europe and the US, where abuse potential and health hazards increasingly emerge. This study is the first to measure systematically Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and drug craving in regular Kratom users in Malaysia.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Drug Alcohol Depend
          Drug and alcohol dependence
          1879-0046
          0376-8716
          Jun 1 2014
          : 139
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
          [2 ] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Clinic, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address: Christian.Mueller@uk-erlangen.de.
          Article
          S0376-8716(14)00793-5
          10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.03.017
          24698080
          14168775-cfbd-48be-a161-5f5b2ff178a9
          Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
          History

          Craving,Dependence,Ketum,Kratom,Mitragynine,Withdrawal
          Craving, Dependence, Ketum, Kratom, Mitragynine, Withdrawal

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