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      Neotype designation for Thymallus aeliani Valenciennes, 1848 from a museum topotype specimen and its affiliation with Adriatic grayling on the basis of mitochondrial DNA

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          Abstract

          In 1848, the grayling Thymallus aeliani (Valenciennes) was described from Lake Maggiore, Italy, in the north Adriatic basin. Genetic analyses of the mitochondrial control region showed a unique evolutionary history of grayling inhabiting the rivers of northern Adriatic basin, from the upper reaches of the Po River and its left tributaries in the west to the Soča River in the east, which resulted in the designation of this phylogenetic lineage as Adriatic grayling. Consequently, the name T. aeliani was connected to the Adriatic lineage, re-establishing the validity of this taxon. However, the mitochondrial haplotypes belonging to Adriatic grayling were never compared with the type specimens of T. aeliani , as their whereabouts were unknown. In this study, a neotype for T. aeliani was designated using topotypical specimens stored at the Natural History Museum in Vienna. The neotype (NMW 68027:2 labelled as “Lago Maggiore, Bellotti, 1880”) was designated pursuant to the conditions stipulated in Article 75.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Furthermore, the mitochondrial control region of the neotype was compared to haplotypes of the Adriatic lineage and showed high genetic similarity, which therefore connects the species name T. aeliani to the Adriatic grayling. This crucial step in fixing nomenclatural status of this species is very important for its protection and management.

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          Most cited references 36

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          jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing.

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            Bayesian Phylogenetics with BEAUti and the BEAST 1.7

            Computational evolutionary biology, statistical phylogenetics and coalescent-based population genetics are becoming increasingly central to the analysis and understanding of molecular sequence data. We present the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis by Sampling Trees (BEAST) software package version 1.7, which implements a family of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for Bayesian phylogenetic inference, divergence time dating, coalescent analysis, phylogeography and related molecular evolutionary analyses. This package includes an enhanced graphical user interface program called Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Utility (BEAUti) that enables access to advanced models for molecular sequence and phenotypic trait evolution that were previously available to developers only. The package also provides new tools for visualizing and summarizing multispecies coalescent and phylogeographic analyses. BEAUti and BEAST 1.7 are open source under the GNU lesser general public license and available at http://beast-mcmc.googlecode.com and http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk
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              Primer3—new capabilities and interfaces

              Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a basic molecular biology technique with a multiplicity of uses, including deoxyribonucleic acid cloning and sequencing, functional analysis of genes, diagnosis of diseases, genotyping and discovery of genetic variants. Reliable primer design is crucial for successful PCR, and for over a decade, the open-source Primer3 software has been widely used for primer design, often in high-throughput genomics applications. It has also been incorporated into numerous publicly available software packages and web services. During this period, we have greatly expanded Primer3’s functionality. In this article, we describe Primer3’s current capabilities, emphasizing recent improvements. The most notable enhancements incorporate more accurate thermodynamic models in the primer design process, both to improve melting temperature prediction and to reduce the likelihood that primers will form hairpins or dimers. Additional enhancements include more precise control of primer placement—a change motivated partly by opportunities to use whole-genome sequences to improve primer specificity. We also added features to increase ease of use, including the ability to save and re-use parameter settings and the ability to require that individual primers not be used in more than one primer pair. We have made the core code more modular and provided cleaner programming interfaces to further ease integration with other software. These improvements position Primer3 for continued use with genome-scale data in the decade ahead.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                30 November 2020
                : 999
                : 165-178
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia University of Ljubljana Ljubljana Slovenia
                [2 ] First Zoological Department, Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7, 1010 Wien, Austria Natural History Museum Vienna Vienna Austria
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jernej Bravničar ( jernej.bravnicar@ 123456bf.uni-lj.si )

                Academic editor: N. Bogutskaya

                Article
                56636
                10.3897/zookeys.999.56636
                7723886
                Jernej Bravničar, Anja Palandačić, Simona Sušnik Bajec, Aleš Snoj

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Actinopterygii
                Osteichthyes
                Pisces
                Salmonidae
                Salmoniformes
                Molecular Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Europe

                Animal science & Zoology

                taxonomy, control region, morphology, museum dna, neotypification, adriatic basin

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