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      RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen and Potential Impact on Non- Apis Hymenopteran Species

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          Abstract

          Although overall pollinator populations have declined over the last couple of decades, the honey bee ( Apis mellifera) malady, colony collapse disorder (CCD), has caused major concern in the agricultural community. Among honey bee pathogens, RNA viruses are emerging as a serious threat and are suspected as major contributors to CCD. Recent detection of these viral species in bumble bees suggests a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. It is therefore vital to study the ecology and epidemiology of these viruses in the hymenopteran pollinator community as a whole. We studied the viral distribution in honey bees, in their pollen loads, and in other non- Apis hymenopteran pollinators collected from flowering plants in Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois in the United States. Viruses in the samples were detected using reverse transcriptase-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. For the first time, we report the molecular detection of picorna-like RNA viruses (deformed wing virus, sacbrood virus and black queen cell virus) in pollen pellets collected directly from forager bees. Pollen pellets from several uninfected forager bees were detected with virus, indicating that pollen itself may harbor viruses. The viruses in the pollen and honey stored in the hive were demonstrated to be infective, with the queen becoming infected and laying infected eggs after these virus-contaminated foods were given to virus-free colonies. These viruses were detected in eleven other non- Apis hymenopteran species, ranging from many solitary bees to bumble bees and wasps. This finding further expands the viral host range and implies a possible deeper impact on the health of our ecosystem. Phylogenetic analyses support that these viruses are disseminating freely among the pollinators via the flower pollen itself. Notably, in cases where honey bee apiaries affected by CCD harbored honey bees with Israeli Acute Paralysis virus (IAPV), nearby non- Apis hymenopteran pollinators also had IAPV, while those near apiaries without IAPV did not. In containment greenhouse experiments, IAPV moved from infected honey bees to bumble bees and from infected bumble bees to honey bees within a week, demonstrating that the viruses could be transmitted from one species to another. This study adds to our present understanding of virus epidemiology and may help explain bee disease patterns and pollinator population decline in general.

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          Most cited references 65

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          The Economic Value of Ecological Services Provided by Insects

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            BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees

            Background The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of sequence evolution are provided and tree-based models suitable for both within- and between-species sequence data are implemented. Results BEAST version 1.4.6 consists of 81000 lines of Java source code, 779 classes and 81 packages. It provides models for DNA and protein sequence evolution, highly parametric coalescent analysis, relaxed clock phylogenetics, non-contemporaneous sequence data, statistical alignment and a wide range of options for prior distributions. BEAST source code is object-oriented, modular in design and freely available at under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusion BEAST is a powerful and flexible evolutionary analysis package for molecular sequence variation. It also provides a resource for the further development of new models and statistical methods of evolutionary analysis.
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              Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers.

              Pollinators are a key component of global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. There is clear evidence of recent declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in the plants that rely upon them. Here we describe the nature and extent of reported declines, and review the potential drivers of pollinator loss, including habitat loss and fragmentation, agrochemicals, pathogens, alien species, climate change and the interactions between them. Pollinator declines can result in loss of pollination services which have important negative ecological and economic impacts that could significantly affect the maintenance of wild plant diversity, wider ecosystem stability, crop production, food security and human welfare. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2010
                22 December 2010
                : 5
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United States of America
                [3 ]Mailman School of Public Health, Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
                [4 ]Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United States of America
                [5 ]Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, United States of America
                Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (CSIC/UIB), Spain
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: RS ALL EGR ECH NO DCF. Performed the experiments: RS ALL. Analyzed the data: RS ALL EGR ECH DCF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ALL ECH Dv WIL Cd AT. Wrote the paper: RS ALL EGR ECH NO Dv WIL Cd AT DCF.

                Article
                10-PONE-RA-16995R1
                10.1371/journal.pone.0014357
                3008715
                21203504
                Singh et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 16
                Categories
                Research Article
                Science Policy
                Ecology/Ecosystem Ecology
                Ecology/Environmental Microbiology
                Ecology/Evolutionary Ecology
                Ecology/Plant-Environment Interactions
                Evolutionary Biology/Bioinformatics
                Virology/Diagnosis
                Virology/Emerging Viral Diseases
                Virology/Virus Evolution and Symbiosis
                Infectious Diseases/Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases
                Infectious Diseases/Viral Infections

                Uncategorized

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