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      A Review of Plasma Exchange in Sepsis

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Extracorporeal therapy, Cytokines, Inflammation, Outcome, Plasma filtration

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          Abstract

          Background: Severe sepsis involves a generalised inflammatory response, mediated by a number of cellular and humoral factors. Modulation of this response holds the promise of improved survival. Plasma exchange has been suggested as an adjunctive therapy in grave infective illnesses such as meningococcaemia, because it might remove harmful bacterial products and excessive endogenous inflammatory mediators. Aims: The aim of this article is to outline plasma exchange as an adjunctive therapy in sepsis, with an emphasis on the available clinical and experimental evidence for its use. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline including all English language references to exchange transfusion, plasma exchange, plasmapheresis, plasma filtration and sepsis. Relevant texts and conference proceedings booklets were also hand searched. Results: Uncontrolled human data from case reports of more than 40 patients treated with plasma exchange for severe sepsis suggest a survival rate of over 70%. Animal studies produced conflicting results depending on the species and the model of sepsis employed. The only controlled clinical trial was too small to make conclusions regarding mortality. Conclusions: Plasma exchange remains an intuitively attractive but unproven therapy in sepsis. More controlled clinical trials are needed.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Pathogenetic mechanisms of septic shock.

           J Parrillo (1993)
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              Coupled plasma filtration-adsorption in a rabbit model of endotoxic shock.

              To test the hypothesis that nonselective adsorption by a hydrophobic resin of cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators could improve 72-hr survival in a rabbit model of endotoxic shock. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal trial. Animal care facility at a research institution. A total of 109 New Zealand white male rabbits. Anesthetized rabbits were cannulated with indwelling femoral arterial and venous lines. Septic shock was induced by a single intravenous injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The dose was experimentally assessed in 40 rabbits receiving 1.0, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/kg body weight to determine LD80 at 72 hrs. Extracorporeal circulation consisted of plasma filtration coupled with passage of the plasma filtrate through a hydrophobic sorbent and reinfusion into the venous line. The extracorporeal treatment lasted for 3 hrs. Rabbits injected with endotoxin (0.05 mg/kg) were submitted to plasma filtration with (19 rabbits) or without (20 rabbits) sorbent adsorption. As controls, rabbits injected with vehicle alone were treated with plasma filtration (ten rabbits) or without (ten rabbits) sorbent adsorption. Ten rabbits were monitored under anesthesia to determine basal survival. Plasma concentrations of endotoxin, bioactive tumor necrosis factor, resin-adsorbed platelet-activating factor, mean arterial pressure, base excess, and white cell count were assessed and a global severity score was established. At 72 hrs, cumulative survival was significantly (p = .0041) improved in septic rabbits treated with coupled plasma filtration-adsorption. Circulating tumor necrosis factor bioactivity remained similar in control and treated rabbits. Biologically significant amounts of platelet activating factor were eluted from the sorbent during the entire treatment time. The severity score inversely correlated with survival (p < .001). Coupled plasma filtration-adsorption improved survival in a rabbit model of endotoxic shock. Coupled plasma filtration-adsorption may be an extracorporeal treatment capable of removing structurally different inflammatory mediators associated with sepsis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7371-9
                978-3-318-00812-8
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2002
                2002
                27 February 2002
                : 20
                : 3
                : 282-288
                Affiliations
                Epworth Hospital, Richmond, Vic., Australia
                Article
                47021 Blood Purif 2002;20:282–288
                10.1159/000047021
                11867876
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 55, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/47021
                Categories
                Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on CRRT

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