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      Sudden Death of Entanglement

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          Abstract

          A new development in the dynamical behavior of elementary quantum systems is the surprising discovery that correlation between two quantum units of information called qubits can be degraded by environmental noise in a way not seen previously in studies of dissipation. This new route for dissipation attacks quantum entanglement, the essential resource for quantum information as well as the central feature in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen so-called paradox and in discussions of the fate of Schr\"{o}inger's cat. The effect has been labeled ESD, which stands for early-stage disentanglement or, more frequently, entanglement sudden death. We review recent progress in studies focused on this phenomenon.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Entanglement of Formation of an Arbitrary State of Two Qubits

          The entanglement of a pure state of a pair of quantum systems is defined as the entropy of either member of the pair. The entanglement of formation of a mixed state is defined as the minimum average entanglement of an ensemble of pure states that represents the given mixed state. An earlier paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5022 (1997)] conjectured an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of a pair of binary quantum objects (qubits) as a function of their density matrix, and proved the formula to be true for a special class of mixed states. The present paper extends the proof to arbitrary states of this system and shows how to construct entanglement-minimizing pure-state decompositions.
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            Decoherence, einselection, and the quantum origins of the classical

              (2001)
            Decoherence is caused by the interaction with the environment. Environment monitors certain observables of the system, destroying interference between the pointer states corresponding to their eigenvalues. This leads to environment-induced superselection or einselection, a quantum process associated with selective loss of information. Einselected pointer states are stable. They can retain correlations with the rest of the Universe in spite of the environment. Einselection enforces classicality by imposing an effective ban on the vast majority of the Hilbert space, eliminating especially the flagrantly non-local "Schr\"odinger cat" states. Classical structure of phase space emerges from the quantum Hilbert space in the appropriate macroscopic limit: Combination of einselection with dynamics leads to the idealizations of a point and of a classical trajectory. In measurements, einselection replaces quantum entanglement between the apparatus and the measured system with the classical correlation.
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              Finite-Time Disentanglement via Spontaneous Emission

               J. H. Eberly,  Ting Yu (2004)
              We show that under the influence of pure vacuum noise two entangled qubits become completely disentangled in a finite time, and in a specific example we find the time to be given by \(\ln \Big(\frac{2 +\sqrt 2}{2}\Big)\) times the usual spontaneous lifetime.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                07 October 2009
                Article
                10.1126/science.1167343
                0910.1396

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                Science 323, 598-601 (2009)
                6 pages, 5 figures
                quant-ph

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