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      Use of metformin and vildagliptin for treatment of type 2 diabetes in the elderly

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          The aim of this study was to describe the clinical (treatment adherence, metabolic control, hypoglycemia, and macrovascular complications) and economic (resource use and costs) consequences of using a combination of metformin + vildagliptin to treat type 2 diabetes in elderly patients seen in daily clinical practice.


          We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational study that included patients aged ≥65 years treated with metformin who started a second oral antidiabetic therapy during the years 2008–2009. There were two groups of patients: a study group receiving metformin + vildagliptin and a reference group receiving metformin + other oral antidiabetics (sulfonylureas or glitazones). The main measures were comorbidity, compliance/persistence, metabolic control (glycosylated hemoglobin <7%), complications (hypoglycemic, macrovascular), and total costs. The patients were followed for 2 years.


          We recruited 987 patients (49.1% male) of mean age 74.2 years. There were 270 (27.4%) patients in the metformin + vildagliptin group and 717 (72.6%) in the reference group. Vildagliptin-treated patients had significantly ( P<0.05) improved compliance (68.3% versus 62.5%, respectively), persistence (61.5% versus 55.1%), and metabolic control (63.3% versus 57.6%). They also had lower rates of hypoglycemia (17.4% versus 42.8%) and cardiovascular events (4.4% versus 8.6%) and lower total costs (€2,544 versus €2,699, P<0.05).


          Patients treated with metformin and vildagliptin showed better adherence and metabolic control and lower rates of hypoglycemia, resulting in lower health care costs for the national health system.

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          Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in Spain: the Di@bet.es Study

          Aims/hypothesis The Di@bet.es Study is the first national study in Spain to examine the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, cluster sampling study was carried out, with target population being the entire Spanish population. Five thousand and seventy-two participants in 100 clusters (health centres or the equivalent in each region) were randomly selected with a probability proportional to population size. Participation rate was 55.8%. Study variables were a clinical and demographic structured survey, lifestyle survey, physical examination (weight, height, BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure) and OGTT (75 g). Results Almost 30% of the study population had some carbohydrate disturbance. The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus adjusted for age and sex was 13.8% (95% CI 12.8, 14.7%), of which about half had unknown diabetes: 6.0% (95% CI 5.4, 6.7%). The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and combined IFG–IGT were 3.4% (95% CI 2.9, 4.0%), 9.2% (95% CI 8.2, 10.2%) and 2.2% (95% CI 1.7, 2.7%), respectively. The prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation increased significantly with age (p < 0.0001), and was higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). Conclusions/interpretation The Di@bet.es Study shows, for the first time, the prevalence rates of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in a representative sample of the Spanish population.
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            Development and application of a population-oriented measure of ambulatory care case-mix.

            This article describes a new case-mix methodology applicable primarily to the ambulatory care sector. The Ambulatory Care Group (ACG) system provides a conceptually simple, statistically valid, and clinically relevant measure useful in predicting the utilization of ambulatory health services within a particular population group. ACGs are based on a person's demographic characteristics and their pattern of disease over an extended period of time, such as a year. Specifically, the ACG system is driven by a person's age, sex, and ICD-9-CM diagnoses assigned during patient-provider encounters; it does not require any special data beyond those collected routinely by insurance claims systems or encounter forms. The categorization scheme does not depend on the presence of specific diagnoses that may change over time; rather it is based on broad clusters of diagnoses and conditions. The presence or absence of each disease cluster, along with age and sex, are used to classify a person into one of 51 ACG categories. The ACG system has been developed and tested using computerized encounter and claims data from more than 160,000 continuous enrollees at four large HMOs and a state's Medicaid program. The ACG system can explain more than 50% of the variance in ambulatory resource use if used retrospectively and more than 20% if applied prospectively. This compares with 6% when age and sex alone are used. In addition to describing ACG development and validation, this article also explores some potential applications of the system for provider payment, quality assurance, utilization review, and health services research, particularly as it relates to capitated settings.
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              How should cost data in pragmatic randomised trials be analysed?


                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                18 June 2014
                : 8
                : 811-818
                [1 ]Dirección de Planificación, Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, Spain
                [2 ]Documentación Médica, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Antoni Sicras-Mainar, Dirección de Planificación y Desarrollo Organizativo, C Gaietà Soler, 6-8 entlo, Badalona 08911, Barcelona, Spain, Tel +93 507 2684, Email asicras@ 123456bsa.cat
                © 2014 Sicras-Mainar and Navarro-Artieda. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


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