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      Establishment and Validation of Prognostic Nomograms for Endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

      Journal of the National Cancer Institute

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          This study aimed to establish an effective prognostic nomogram with or without plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV DNA) for nondisseminated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

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          Most cited references 22

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          Chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal cancer: phase III randomized Intergroup study 0099.

          The Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) coordinated an Intergroup study with the participation of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG). This randomized phase III trial compared chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in patients with nasopharyngeal cancers. Radiotherapy was administered in both arms: 1.8- to 2.0-Gy/d fractions Monday to Friday for 35 to 39 fractions for a total dose of 70 Gy. The investigational arm received chemotherapy with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on days 1, 22, and 43 during radiotherapy; postradiotherapy, chemotherapy with cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on day 1 and fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m2/d on days 1 to 4 was administered every 4 weeks for three courses. Patients were stratified by tumor stage, nodal stage, performance status, and histology. Of 193 patients registered, 147 (69 radiotherapy and 78 chemoradiotherapy) were eligible for primary analysis for survival and toxicity. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 15 months for eligible patients on the radiotherapy arm and was not reached for the chemo-radiotherapy group. The 3-year PFS rate was 24% versus 69%, respectively (P < .001). The median survival time was 34 months for the radiotherapy group and not reached for the chemo-radiotherapy group, and the 3-year survival rate was 47% versus 78%, respectively (P = .005). One hundred eighty-five patients were included in a secondary analysis for survival. The 3-year survival rate for patients randomized to radiotherapy was 46%, and for the chemoradiotherapy group was 76% (P < .001). We conclude that chemoradiotherapy is superior to radiotherapy alone for patients with advanced nasopharyngeal cancers with respect to PFS and overall survival.
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            Phase III study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: positive effect on overall and progression-free survival.

            Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a radiosensitive and chemosensitive tumor. This randomized phase III trial compared concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) versus radiotherapy (RT) alone in patients with advanced NPC. From December 1993 to April 1999, 284 patients with 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III to IV (M0) NPC were randomly allocated into two arms. Similar dosage and fractionation of RT was administered in both arms. The investigational arm received two cycles of concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin 20 mg/m(2)/d plus fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2)/d by 96-hour continuous infusion during the weeks 1 and 5 of RT. Survival analysis was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Baseline patient characteristics were comparable in both arms. After a median follow-up of 65 months, 26.2% (37 of 141) and 46.2% (66 of 143) of patients developed tumor relapse in the CCRT and RT-alone groups, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates were 72.3% for the CCRT arm and 54.2% for the RT-only arm (P =.0022). The 5-year progression-free survival rates were 71.6% for the CCRT group compared with 53.0% for the RT-only group (P =.0012). Although significantly more toxicity was noted in the CCRT arm, including leukopenia and emesis, compliance with the combined treatment was good. The second cycle of concurrent chemotherapy was refused by nine patients and was delayed for > or = 1 week for another nine patients. There were no treatment-related deaths in either arm. We conclude that CCRT is superior to RT alone for patients with advanced NPC in endemic areas.
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              A prospective, randomized study comparing outcomes and toxicities of intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

              To compare clinical outcomes and toxicities of two-dimensional conventional radiation therapy (2D-CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Between July 2003 and October 2008, 616 patients with non-metastatic stage I to IVb NPC were prospectively randomized to receive 2D-CRT (n=310; mean age, 44.8±13.6 years) or IMRT (n=306; mean age, 46.7±12.5 years). Clinical outcomes and acute and late toxicities were determined and compared. The 2 groups were comparable with respect to all parameters of demographics and disease characteristics (all, p>0.05). Median follow-up was 42 months (range, 1-83 months). The 5-year actuarial local control rate was 90.5% in the IMRT group and 84.7% in the 2D-CRT group. The local control rates were 91% for stage T3 and 81.5% for stage T4 disease in the IMRT group and 80% and 62.2% in the 2D-CRT group, respectively. The 5-year actuarial nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS) rate was 92.4% in the IMRT and 92.9% in the 2D-CRT group (p>0.05). The NRFS was 93.9% for N2 disease in the IMRT group and 91.4% in the 2D-CRT group (p=0.02). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 79.6% for the IMRT group and 67.1% for the 2D-CRT group (p=0.001). When stratified for stage, a significant difference was only noted for stage III disease. In terms of radiation-induced toxicities, patients in IMRT group had significantly lower radiation-induced toxicities than those in 2D-CRT group. IMRT provides improved local-recurrence free survival, especially in late-stage NPC patients and is associated with a lower incidence of toxicities. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                26467665
                10.1093/jnci/djv291

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