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      Regular participation in sports is associated with enhanced physical fitness and lower fat mass in prepubertal boys.

      Brain research. Brain research reviews

      Adipose Tissue, anatomy & histology, Adolescent, Adult, Analysis of Variance, Anthropometry, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Child, Cross-Sectional Studies, Humans, Isometric Contraction, physiology, Male, Physical Fitness, Sports, Waist-Hip Ratio

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          Abstract

          To study the effect of physical activity on whole body fat (BF), its regional deposition and the influence of body fatness on physical performance in prepubertal children. Cross-sectional study. A total of 114 boys (9.4+/-1.5 y, Tanner I-II), randomly sampled from the population of Gran Canaria (Spain), 63 of them physically active (PA, at least 3 h per week during the previous year) and 51 nonphysically active (non-PA). Body composition (DXA), anthropometric variables (body circumferences and skinfolds) and physical fitness were determined in all subjects. The PA obtained better results in maximal oxygen uptake, isometric leg extension force, vertical jump (muscular power), and 300 m (anaerobic capacity) and 30 m running tests (speed) than the non-PA. A lower percentage of body fat (% BF) (4 U less, P<0.05), whole BF mass (36% less, P<0.05) and regional fat mass (28, 25, and 30% less in the trunk, legs and arms, respectively, all P<0.05) was observed in the PA compared to the non-PA. The waist and hip circumferences correlated more closely with both the fat mass accumulated in the trunk region and the % BF (r=0.81-0.95, P<0.001) than the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The WHR correlated with the percentage of the whole fat mass accumulated in the trunk (PFT) (r=0.52-0.53, P<0.001). In both groups, the PFT increased curvilinearly with the % BF, regardless of the level of physical activity. ANCOVA analysis revealed that total and regional fat masses explained less than 40% of the difference in performance between the PA and non-PA group. The mean speed in the 30 m running test (V30), combined with the height and whole body mass, has predictive value for the BF mass (R=0.98, P<0.001). The % BF may be estimated from the body mass index (BMI) and V30 (% BF=8.09+2.44.BMI (kg m(-2))-5.8.V30 (m s(-1)), R=0.94, P<0.001) in prepubertal boys. Regular participation in at least 3 h per week of sports activities and competitions on top of the compulsory physical education program is associated with increased physical fitness, lower whole body and trunkal fat mass in prepubertal boys.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure

          The Lancet, 360(9331), 473-482
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            A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping

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              Sex differences in the relation of visceral adipose tissue accumulation to total body fatness.

              The associations between the amount of abdominal adipose tissue (AT) measured by computed tomography (CT) or estimated with predictive equations and the amount of total body fat were compared in samples of 89 men and 75 women. After correction for total body fat mass, men had significantly higher values of visceral AT volume (P < 0.0001) and also higher abdominal visceral AT areas, measured by CT or estimated by predictive equations than women (P < 0.0001). In addition, an increase in total fat mass was associated with a significantly greater increase in visceral AT volume in men than in women (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, these results suggest that the greater health hazards associated with excess fatness in men than in women may be explained by the fact that premenopausal women can accumulate more body fat than men of the same age before reaching the amounts of visceral AT found in men.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                15303104
                10.1038/sj.ijo.0802754

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