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      Does Proximity to Retailers Influence Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Latino Adolescents?

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          Abstract

          Despite decades of research surrounding determinants of alcohol and tobacco (A&T) use among adolescents, built environment influences have only recently been explored. This study used ordinal regression on 205 Latino adolescents to explore the influence of the built environment (proximity to A&T retailers) on A&T use, while controlling for recognized social predictors. The sample was 45% foreign-born. A&T use was associated with distance from respondents’ home to the nearest A&T retailer (−), acculturation (+), parents’ consistent use of contingency management (−), peer use of A&T (+), skipping school (+), attending school in immediate proximity to the US/Mexico border (+), and the interaction between the distance to the nearest retailer and parents’ consistent use of contingency management (+). The association between decreasing distance to the nearest A&T retailer and increased A&T use in Latino adolescents reveals an additional risk behavior determinant in the US–Mexico border region.

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          Most cited references 38

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          A New Measurement of Acculturation for Hispanics: The Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BAS)

           G Marin,  R. J. Gamba (1996)
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            Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools?

            To examine the quantity (density) and location (proximity) of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in high school neighborhoods and their association with school smoking prevalence. Data from the 135 high schools that participated in the 2005-2006 California Student Tobacco Survey were combined with retailer licensing data about the location of tobacco outlets within walking distance (1/2 mi or 805 m) of the schools and with observations about the quantity of cigarette advertising in a random sample of those stores (n=384). Multiple regressions, adjusting for school and neighborhood demographics, tested the associations of high school smoking prevalence with the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising and with the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools. The prevalence of current smoking was 3.2 percentage points higher at schools in neighborhoods with the highest tobacco outlet density (>5 outlets) than in neighborhoods without any tobacco outlets. The density of retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods was similarly associated with high school smoking prevalence. However, neither the presence of a tobacco outlet within 1000 ft of a high school nor the distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from school was associated with smoking prevalence. Policy efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should aim to reduce the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods. This may be achieved through local zoning ordinances, including limiting the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools.
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              Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: crime potentials and geospatial analysis.

              Empirical tests of relationships between alcohol outlets and violence are generally conducted with statistical controls for correlates related to characteristics of people and the places in which they live. Crime potentials theory asserts that certain subpopulations are disposed to participate in criminal activities (population potentials) and certain neighborhoods are more likely to be places where crimes occur (place potentials). The current study assesses the degree to which measures of the different geographic distributions of these potentials contribute to violent crime. Cross-sectional data on hospital discharges for violent assaults were obtained for residents of 1637 zip code areas in California. Assault rates were related to measures of population and place characteristics using spatial statistical models corrected for spatial autocorrelated error. Rates of assault were related to population and place characteristics within zip code areas, and with characteristics of populations living in adjacent zip code areas. Assault rates were greater in densely populated, poor minority urban areas with greater residential instability. Assault rates were also greater in zip code areas adjacent to densely populated urban areas. Assault rates were related significantly to local densities of off-premise alcohol retail establishments, not bars. However, densities of bars moderated substantially effects related to local population characteristics. Bars were related significantly to violence in unstable poor minority areas and in rural middle-income areas of the state. Population and place characteristics are associated with rates of violence across spatial areas. Alcohol outlets directly affect and moderate potentials for violence associated with socio-demographic groups.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                1-801-4223444 , josh.west@byu.edu
                Journal
                J Immigr Minor Health
                Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
                Springer US (Boston )
                1557-1912
                1557-1920
                20 November 2009
                20 November 2009
                October 2010
                : 12
                : 5
                : 626-633
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Health Science, Brigham Young University, 229-L Richards Building, Provo, UT 84602 USA
                [2 ]Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA USA
                [3 ]Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA USA
                [4 ]School of Public Affairs, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA USA
                [5 ]School of Social Work, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA USA
                Article
                9303
                10.1007/s10903-009-9303-2
                2904835
                19936923
                © The Author(s) 2009
                Categories
                Original Paper
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

                Health & Social care

                tobacco use, gis, adolescents, alcohol use, latinos, built environment

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