2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Oxidant/Antioxidant Profile in the Thoracic Aneurysm of Patients with the Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Patients with the Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) have mutations in the TGF- βR1, TGF- βR2, and SMAD3 genes. However, little is known about the redox homeostasis in the thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) they develop. Here, we evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant profile in the TAA tissue from LDS patients and compare it with that in nondamaged aortic tissue from control (C) subjects. We evaluate the enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms, and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). We also analyze some antioxidants from a nonenzymatic system such as selenium (Se), glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation and carbonylation, as well as xanthine oxidase (ORX) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expressions, were also evaluated. TAA from LDS patients showed a decrease in GSH, Se, TAC, GPx, GST, CAT, and TrxR. The SOD activity and ORX expressions were increased, but the Nrf2 expression was decreased. The results suggest that the redox homeostasis is altered in the TAA from LDS patients, favoring ROS overproduction that contributes to the decrease in GSH and TAC and leads to LPO and carbonylation. The decrease in Se and Nrf2 alters the activity and/or expression of some antioxidant enzymes, thus favoring a positive feedback oxidative background that contributes to the TAA formation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 55

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Glutathione transferases.

          This review describes the three mammalian glutathione transferase (GST) families, namely cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal GST, the latter now designated MAPEG. Besides detoxifying electrophilic xenobiotics, such as chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants, and antitumor agents, these transferases inactivate endogenous alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, quinones, epoxides, and hydroperoxides formed as secondary metabolites during oxidative stress. These enzymes are also intimately involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, prostaglandins, testosterone, and progesterone, as well as the degradation of tyrosine. Among their substrates, GSTs conjugate the signaling molecules 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and 4-hydroxynonenal with glutathione, and consequently they antagonize expression of genes trans-activated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Through metabolism of 15d-PGJ2, GST may enhance gene expression driven by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Cytosolic human GST exhibit genetic polymorphisms and this variation can increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis and inflammatory disease. Polymorphisms in human MAPEG are associated with alterations in lung function and increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Targeted disruption of murine genes has demonstrated that cytosolic GST isoenzymes are broadly cytoprotective, whereas MAPEG proteins have proinflammatory activities. Furthermore, knockout of mouse GSTA4 and GSTZ1 leads to overexpression of transferases in the Alpha, Mu, and Pi classes, an observation suggesting they are part of an adaptive mechanism that responds to endogenous chemical cues such as 4-hydroxynonenal and tyrosine degradation products. Consistent with this hypothesis, the promoters of cytosolic GST and MAPEG genes contain antioxidant response elements through which they are transcriptionally activated during exposure to Michael reaction acceptors and oxidative stress.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The thioredoxin antioxidant system.

             Arne Holmgren,  Jun Lu (2013)
            The thioredoxin (Trx) system, which is composed of NADPH, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and thioredoxin, is a key antioxidant system in defense against oxidative stress through its disulfide reductase activity regulating protein dithiol/disulfide balance. The Trx system provides the electrons to thiol-dependent peroxidases (peroxiredoxins) to remove reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with a fast reaction rate. Trx antioxidant functions are also shown by involvement in DNA and protein repair by reducing ribonucleotide reductase, methionine sulfoxide reductases, and regulating the activity of many redox-sensitive transcription factors. Moreover, Trx systems play critical roles in the immune response, virus infection, and cell death via interaction with thioredoxin-interacting protein. In mammalian cells, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Trx systems, in which TrxRs are high molecular weight selenoenzymes, together with the glutathione-glutaredoxin (Grx) system (NADPH, glutathione reductase, GSH, and Grx) control the cellular redox environment. Recently mammalian thioredoxin and glutathione systems have been found to be able to provide the electrons crossly and to serve as a backup system for each other. In contrast, bacteria TrxRs are low molecular weight enzymes with a structure and reaction mechanism distinct from mammalian TrxR. Many bacterial species possess specific thiol-dependent antioxidant systems, and the significance of the Trx system in the defense against oxidative stress is different. Particularly, the absence of a GSH-Grx system in some pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus makes the bacterial Trx system essential for survival under oxidative stress. This provides an opportunity to kill these bacteria by targeting the TrxR-Trx system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

              Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2020
                23 March 2020
                : 2020
                Affiliations
                1Immunology Department, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, 14080 México City, Mexico
                2Cardiovascular Biomedicine Department, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, 14080 México City, Mexico
                3Physiology Department, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, 14080 México City, Mexico
                4Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, 14080 México City, Mexico
                Author notes

                Guest Editor: Ayman M. Mahmoud

                Article
                10.1155/2020/5392454
                7128053
                1488d950-c0a3-45aa-9d26-a28b6fdae320
                Copyright © 2020 Maria Elena Soto et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine

                Comments

                Comment on this article