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      Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in a 32-Year-Old Kidney Allograft after7 Years without Immunosuppression

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          In kidney allografts, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has been described as recurrent, de novo, or a histological variant of chronic transplant glomerulopathy. We describe a unique case of de novo FSGS in a renal transplant not accompanied by any feature of rejection in a patient who had not been immunosuppressed for several years. A 58-year-old woman received a histoidentical living-related kidney transplant for end-stage renal disease due to chronic pyelonephritis. Twenty-four years after the transplant she voluntarily discontinued all immunosuppressive medication. Seven years later she presented with nephrotic syndrome, mild renal failure, and positive serology for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody. The kidney transplant biopsy disclosed de novo FSGS. Features of acute or chronic rejection, including chronic transplant glomerulopathy, were not seen. The pathogenesis of this lesion is probably related to sustained and prolonged glomerular hyperfiltration; alternatively, HCV infection may have triggered or accelerated the appearance of FSGS.

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          Circulating factor associated with increased glomerular permeability to albumin in recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

          Heavy proteinuria and progressive renal injury recur after transplantation in up to 40 percent of patients with renal failure caused by idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. A circulating factor may be responsible for this recurrence. To determine whether patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis have a circulating factor capable of causing glomerular injury, we tested serum samples from 100 patients with the disorder in an in vitro assay of glomerular permeability to albumin. Of the 56 patients who had undergone renal transplantation, 33 had recurrences. Sixty-four patients, many of whom had undergone transplantation, were being treated with dialysis. Thirty-one patients with other renal diseases and nine normal subjects were also studied. The 33 patients with recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after transplantation had a higher mean (+/-SE) value for permeability to albumin (0.47+/-0.06) than the normal subjects (0.06+/-0.07) or the patients who did not have recurrences (0.14+/-0.06). After plasmapheresis in six patients with recurrences, the permeability was reduced (from 0.79+/-0.06 to 0.10+/-0.05, P = 0.008), and proteinuria was significantly decreased. Patients with corticosteroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome or with membranous nephropathy after transplantation had low levels of serum activity. The circulating factor bound to protein A and hydrophobic-interaction columns and had an apparent molecular mass of about 50 kd. A circulating factor found in some patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with recurrent disease after renal transplantation and may be responsible for initiating the renal injury.

            Author and article information

            S. Karger AG
            July 1999
            21 June 1999
            : 82
            : 3
            : 270-273
            aRenal Section, Department of Medicine and bDepartment of Pathology, Methodist Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
            45412 Nephron 1999;82:270–273
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Figures: 2, References: 11, Pages: 4
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