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      Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in a 32-Year-Old Kidney Allograft after7 Years without Immunosuppression

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          Abstract

          In kidney allografts, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has been described as recurrent, de novo, or a histological variant of chronic transplant glomerulopathy. We describe a unique case of de novo FSGS in a renal transplant not accompanied by any feature of rejection in a patient who had not been immunosuppressed for several years. A 58-year-old woman received a histoidentical living-related kidney transplant for end-stage renal disease due to chronic pyelonephritis. Twenty-four years after the transplant she voluntarily discontinued all immunosuppressive medication. Seven years later she presented with nephrotic syndrome, mild renal failure, and positive serology for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody. The kidney transplant biopsy disclosed de novo FSGS. Features of acute or chronic rejection, including chronic transplant glomerulopathy, were not seen. The pathogenesis of this lesion is probably related to sustained and prolonged glomerular hyperfiltration; alternatively, HCV infection may have triggered or accelerated the appearance of FSGS.

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          Circulating factor associated with increased glomerular permeability to albumin in recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

          Heavy proteinuria and progressive renal injury recur after transplantation in up to 40 percent of patients with renal failure caused by idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. A circulating factor may be responsible for this recurrence. To determine whether patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis have a circulating factor capable of causing glomerular injury, we tested serum samples from 100 patients with the disorder in an in vitro assay of glomerular permeability to albumin. Of the 56 patients who had undergone renal transplantation, 33 had recurrences. Sixty-four patients, many of whom had undergone transplantation, were being treated with dialysis. Thirty-one patients with other renal diseases and nine normal subjects were also studied. The 33 patients with recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after transplantation had a higher mean (+/-SE) value for permeability to albumin (0.47+/-0.06) than the normal subjects (0.06+/-0.07) or the patients who did not have recurrences (0.14+/-0.06). After plasmapheresis in six patients with recurrences, the permeability was reduced (from 0.79+/-0.06 to 0.10+/-0.05, P = 0.008), and proteinuria was significantly decreased. Patients with corticosteroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome or with membranous nephropathy after transplantation had low levels of serum activity. The circulating factor bound to protein A and hydrophobic-interaction columns and had an apparent molecular mass of about 50 kd. A circulating factor found in some patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with recurrent disease after renal transplantation and may be responsible for initiating the renal injury.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            1999
            July 1999
            21 June 1999
            : 82
            : 3
            : 270-273
            Affiliations
            aRenal Section, Department of Medicine and bDepartment of Pathology, Methodist Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
            Article
            45412 Nephron 1999;82:270–273
            10.1159/000045412
            10396000
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 2, References: 11, Pages: 4
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45412
            Categories
            Case Report

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