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      Nine new species groups, 15 new species, and one new subspecies of New Guinea diving beetles of the genus Exocelina Broun, 1886 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

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          Nine new species groups of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are introduced with keys to their representatives. Four groups are monotypic and include three new species: the E. aipomek group, the E. koroba group: E. koroba sp. nov., the E. mekilensis group: E. mekilensis sp. nov., and the E. morobensis group: E. morobensis sp. nov. The remaining five species groups include 18 species with 12 new species and one new subspecies: the E. bacchusi group: E. akameku sp. nov., E. oiwa sp. nov., E. oksibilensis sp. nov., and E. bacchusi herzogensis ssp. nov.; the E. jaseminae group: E. aseki sp. nov., E. kailaki sp. nov., and E. pseudojaseminae sp. nov.; the E. larsoni group: E. warahulenensis sp. nov.; the E. takime group: E. mianminensis sp. nov.; and the E. warasera group: E. haia sp. nov., E. kobau sp. nov., E. pulchella sp. nov., and E. warasera sp. nov. Diagnoses of five already described species of these groups are provided, as well as comparatives notes on all species. Exocelina santimontis (Balke, 1998) syn. nov. is a junior synonym of E. aipomek (Balke, 1998). Data on the distribution of the species are given, showing that most of the species of these groups occur in the Papua New Guinea.

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          The towering orogeny of New Guinea as a trigger for arthropod megadiversity.

          Early studies on Melanesian mountain systems provided insights for fundamental evolutionary and ecological concepts. These island-like systems are thought to provide opportunities in the form of newly formed, competition-free niches. Here we show that a hyperdiverse radiation of freshwater arthropods originated in the emerging central New Guinea orogen, out of Australia, about 10 million years ago. Further diversification was mainly allopatric, with repeated more recent colonization of lowlands as they emerged in the form of colliding oceanic island arcs, continental fragments and the Papuan Peninsula, as well as recolonization of the central orogen. We unveil a constant and ongoing process of lineage accumulation while the carrying capacity of the island is about to be reached, suggesting that lineage diversification speed now exceeds that of landmass/new ecological opportunity formation. Therefore, the central orogeny of New Guinea acts as a motor of diversification for the entire region.
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            Introduction of the Exocelina ekari-group with descriptions of 22 new species from New Guinea (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

            Abstract The Exocelina ekari -group is here introduced and defined mainly on the basis of a discontinuous outline of the median lobe of the aedeagus. The group is known only from New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). It contained four species to date: Exocelina astrophallus (Balke, 1998), Exocelina atowaso (Shaverdo, Sagata & Balke, 2005), Exocelina munaso (Shaverdo, Sagata & Balke, 2005), and Exocelina polita (Sharp, 1882). Twenty two new species are described herein: Exocelina alexanderi sp. n., Exocelina anggiensis sp. n., Exocelina arfakensis sp. n., Exocelina bifida sp. n., Exocelina brahminensis sp. n., Exocelina bundiensis sp. n., Exocelina edeltraudae sp. n., Exocelina ekari sp. n., Exocelina eme sp. n., Exocelina evelyncheesmanae sp. n., Exocelina hansferyi sp. n., Exocelina irianensis sp. n., Exocelina kakapupu sp. n., Exocelina knoepfchen sp. n., Exocelina oceai sp. n., Exocelina pseudosoppi sp. n., Exocelina soppi sp. n., Exocelina unipo sp. n., Exocelina utowaensis sp. n., Exocelina waigeoensis sp. n., Exocelina weylandensis sp. n., and Exocelina wondiwoiensis sp. n. The lectotype of Copelatus politus Sharp, 1882 is designated. A checklist and identification key to all species of the group are provided and important diagnostic characters (habitus, color, male antennae and protarsomeres 4–5, median lobes and parameres) are illustrated. Data on the distribution and habitat requirements are given. Representatives of the Exocelina ekari -group are so far mostly known from lowland to lower montane habitats of the northern and central parts of New Guinea, the group is less diverse in higher altitudes.
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              Mosaic patterns of diversification dynamics following the colonization of Melanesian islands

              The fate of newly settled dispersers on freshly colonized oceanic islands is a central theme of island biogeography. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated methods of macroevolutionary pattern inference paves the way for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms governing these diversification patterns on lineages following their colonization of oceanic islands. Here we infer a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for Melanesian Exocelina diving beetles. Recent methods in historical biogeography and diversification rate inference were then used to investigate the evolution of these insects in space and time. An Australian origin in the mid-Miocene was followed by independent colonization events towards New Guinea and New Caledonia in the late Miocene. One colonization of New Guinea led to a large radiation of >150 species and 3 independent colonizations of New Caledonia gave rise to about 40 species. The comparably late colonizations of Vanuatu, Hawaii and China left only one or two species in each region. The contrasting diversification trajectories of these insects on Melanesian islands are likely accounted for by island size, age and availability of ecological opportunities during the colonization stage.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                07 October 2019
                : 878
                : 73-143
                [1 ] Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria
                [2 ] Department of Biology, Universitas Cendrawasih, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia
                [3 ] University of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
                [4 ] SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Münchhausenstraße 21, D-81247 Munich, Germany and GeoBioCenter, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Helena Shaverdo ( shaverdo@ ; helena.shaverdo@ )

                Academic editor: Mariano Michat

                Helena Shaverdo, Suriani Surbakti, Evie L. Warikar, Katayo Sagata, Michael Balke

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: European Research Council 501100000781
                Research Article
                Papua New Guinea


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