Class switch recombination (CSR) is a region-specific, transcriptionally regulated, nonhomologous recombinational process that is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). The initial lesions in the switch (S) regions are subsequently processed and resolved, leading to recombination of the two targeted S regions. The mechanisms by which repair and ligation of the broken DNA ends occurs is still elusive. Recently, a small number of patients lacking DNA ligase IV, a critical component of the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) machinery, have been identified. We show that these patients display a considerably increased donor/acceptor homology at Sμ–Sα junctions compared with healthy controls. In contrast, Sμ–Sγ junctions show an increased frequency of insertions but no increase in junctional homology. These altered patterns of junctional resolution may be related to differences in the homology between the Sμ and the downstream isotype S regions, and could reflect different modes of switch junction resolution when NHEJ is impaired. These findings link DNA ligase IV, and thus NHEJ, to CSR.