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      Chamaejasmin B exerts anti-MDR effect in vitro and in vivo via initiating mitochondria-dependant intrinsic apoptosis pathway

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          Abstract

          Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main obstacle limiting the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Looking for novel anti-MDR agents is an important way to conquer cancer drug resistance. We recently established that chamaejasmin B (CHB), a natural biflavone from Stellera chamaejasme L., is the major active component. However, its anti-MDR activity is still unknown. This study investigated the anti-MDR effect of CHB and the underlying mechanisms. First, it was found that CHB inhibited the growth of both sensitive and resistant cell lines in vitro, and the average resistant factor (RF) of CHB was only 1.26. Furthermore, CHB also displayed favorable anti-MDR activity in KB and KBV200 cancer cells xenograft mice. Subsequent study showed that CHB induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis both in KB and in resistant KBV200 cancer cells. Further studies showed that CHB had no influence on the level of Fas/FasL and activation of procaspase 8. However, CHB-induced apoptosis was dependent on the activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3. Moreover, CHB treatment resulted in the elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ Ψ m), and release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria into cytoplasm both in KB and KBV200 cells. In conclusion, CHB exhibited good anti-MDR activity in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying mechanisms may be related to the activation of mitochondrial-dependant intrinsic apoptosis pathway. These findings provide a new leading compound for MDR therapy and supply a new evidence for the potential of CHB to be employed in clinical trial of MDR therapy in cancers.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Multi-drug resistance in cancer chemotherapeutics: mechanisms and lab approaches.

          Multi-drug resistance (MDR) has become the largest obstacle to the success of cancer chemotherapies. The mechanisms of MDR and the approaches to test MDR have been discovered, yet not fully understood. This review covers the in vivo and in vitro approaches for the detection of MDR in the laboratory and the mechanisms of MDR in cancers. This study also envisages the future developments toward the clinical and therapeutic applications of MDR in cancer treatment. Future therapeutics for cancer treatment will likely combine the existing therapies with drugs originated from MDR mechanisms such as anti-cancer stem cell drugs, anti-miRNA drugs or anti-epigenetic drugs. The challenges for the clinical detection of MDR will be to find new biomarkers and to determine new evaluation systems before the drug resistance emerges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Calcium orchestrates apoptosis.

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              Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and its reversal in cancer.

              Chemotherapy is the main strategy for the treatment of cancer. However, the main problem limiting the success of chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance. The resistance can be intrinsic or acquired. The resistance phenotype is associated with the tumor cells that gain a cross-resistance to a large range of drugs that are structurally and functionally different. Multidrug resistance arises via many unrelated mechanisms, such as overexpression of energy-dependent efflux proteins, decrease in uptake of the agents, increase or alteration in drug targets, modification of cell cycle checkpoints, inactivation of the agents, compartmentalization of the agents, inhibition of apoptosis and aberrant bioactive sphingolipid metabolism. Exact elucidation of resistance mechanisms and molecular and biochemical approaches to overcome multidrug resistance have been a major goal in cancer research. This review comprises the mechanisms guiding multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy and also touches on approaches for reversing the resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                22 September 2015
                : 9
                : 5301-5313
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Beijing Institute of Hepatology and Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xiao Xin Zhu, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 6405 6154, Email zhuxx59@ 123456163.com
                Article
                dddt-9-5301
                10.2147/DDDT.S89392
                4590417
                © 2015 Wang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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